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Page No 23:

Question A.1:

The government is a system which governs the organization of the

a. society
b. United Nation
c. country
d. legislature

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Government is a system by which a country is governed. The government is responsible for exercising executive and political powers with the help of laws framed by it. 

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Question A.2:

The word democracy is derived from two Greek terms

a. alpha, beta
b. demos, kratos
c. demo, cracy
d. none of these

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The word democracy is derived from the two Greek words, 'demos' & 'kratos'. These two words together mean 'authority of the people'. Under democracy, the will of the people is supreme and the citizens can exercise their power of voting. Democracy is thus stated to be a government by the people, of the people and for the people.

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Question A.3:

The most direct form of popular participation in forming a government is called

a. voting
b. adult franchise
c. authority
d. peasants

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Universal adult franchise is the most direct form of participation in forming a government. It means that all adult citizens have the right to vote to select the government. Through this system, the representatives are elected & their working is supervised and controlled by the people. 

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Question A.4:

'Authoritarian' is a term which favours absolute obedience to

a. religion
b. society
c. authority
d. peasants

Answer:

The correct answer is option  (c).

Explanation: Authoritarian is a form of government in which people or citizens owe their ultimate obedience to the selected few with all authority.  

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Question A.5:

The Presidential system of government is characterised by the

a. adult franchise
b. executive
c. legislature
d. separation of powers

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d) separation of powers.

Explanation: In a presidential form of government, power is separated among the three wings of the government, namely, legislature, executive and judiciary. The real executive powers remain concentrated in the hands of the president and he is not responsible to the parliament or the legislature. Judiciary is also an independent wing of the government. 

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Question A.6:

USA, Brazil and Malaysia have this form of government.

a. territorial
b. authoritarian
c. parliamentary
d. federal

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d). 

Explanation: In a federal form of government, powers are not concentrated solely in the hands of the union. Rather power is distributed between the union and the state.

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Question A.7:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares 'franchise' as a human right in

a. Article 21
b. Article 22
c. Article 1
d. Declaration 21

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a). 

Explanation: Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to take part in the government of his/her country, directly or through freely chosen representative. 

Page No 23:

Question B:

  Column A   Column B
1. Democratic government a. direct form of popular participation
2. India b. unitary government
3. Adult franchise c. fusion of powers
4. Great Britain d. answerability to people
5. Parliamentary system e. written constitution

Answer:

1. Democratic government d. answerability to people
2. India e. written constitution
3. Adult franchise a. direct form of popular participation
4. Great Britain b. unitary government
5. Parliamentary system c. fusion of powers

Explanation:

1. Democratic government------> Answerability to people
Democratic government is selected by the people and for the people. People can exercise their power of voting to select the government. If they are not happy with working of government, then people can also replace the government after 5 years of tenure. Hence, it is directly answerable for its decisions to the people. 

2. India------> Written constitution 
 India  has the longest written constitution in the world. The detailed constitution is a real guide to the government.  

3. Adult franchise--------->  Direct form of popular participation
Under Article 21 of the universal adult franchise, all adults and citizens have the right to vote in selecting their representatives in government. People are directly involved in the process of free elections in India. 

4. Great Britain-----> Unitary government 
Great Britain has only one government for governing the whole country. This unitary form of government makes and executes the laws in Britain. 

5. Parliamentary system----> Fusion of power 
A parliamentary form of government is characterised by fusion of powers. Under this system, executive is the part of the legislature and is answerable to it. Here, the head of the state is separate from the head of the government.
 

Page No 23:

Question C.1:

What is a form of government? On what basis is a democratic or an authoritarian government classified?

Answer:

Following are the forms of government:

  • Democratic and authoritarian
  • Parliamentary and presidential
  • Unitary and federal
Democratic and authoritarian government is classified on the basis of whether a government is answerable to its citizens or not. Democratic government is selected by the people and it is completely answerable to the people for the decisions it takes. The authoritarian government means absolute obedience of people to the government, and citizens are not allowed to raise any objections against government. 

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Question C.2:

Where are military regimes mainly found? Give three examples.

Answer:

In a military regime, rules of the military stay in effect over all civilian matters of the country. Movements of civilians are restricted and their fundamental rights may be taken away without giving any reasons. Usually it happens in politically unstable countries. 

Examples of three military regimes are mentioned below:

  1. Libya
  2. Sudan
  3. Myanmar

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Question C.3:

Write two differences between the Parliamentary form and Presidential system of govenment.

Answer:

Parliamentary Form of Government Presidential Form of Government
1. Executive is part of legislature. Executive and legislature are separate wings.
2. Under this system, the head of the state is different from the head of the government. In this system, the real and absolute powers rest in the hands of the president.

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Question C.4:

What is a constitution? List the different types of constitutions.

Answer:

A constitution is set of fundamental principles according to which a country can be governed. The constitution lays down the principles according to which power and authority is to be distributed among different government bodies and organs. The policies of the constitution also enable to put a check on the activities of the bodies. A constitution also lays principles to protect the human rights of its citizens. 

Following ar the types of constitutions:

  1. Written and unwritten constitutions
  2. Rigid and flexible constitutions

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Question C.5:

Why are written constitutions rigid?

Answer:

Written constitutions are usually rigid in nature as they can not be amended easily. Certain guidelines and procedures have to be followed to make any amendments in the constitution. Usually, both the union and the state get involved to amend the constitution. Such is the case in India and the USA.

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Question D.1:

What is a government? What are the functions of the government?

Answer:

Government sets rules for a society and administers the country as per guidelines described in constitution. The major organs of the government are legislature, executive and judiciary. Major functions of government are as follows:

  1. To build social infrastructure for the economic development of the country
  2. To take welfare measures and make policies for the nationals of the country
  3. To implement laws of the land and implement them for maintaining law and order situation in the country
  4. To provide defence to its citizens against any hostile situations
  5. To ensure domestic tranquility to discourage wrongdoing and keep society safe

Page No 23:

Question D.2:

What are the characteristics of an authoritarian government?

Answer:

Authoritarian government means that citizens of the country need to have absolute obedience to the ruling authority. In an authoritarian government, all powers are concentrated with a centralised group of personnel. Few characteristics of an authoritarian government are as follows:

  1. Power is concentrated in the hands of few.
  2. The selected few have all the decision-making power.
  3. Citizens do not enjoy unlimited freedom. Instead, all their rights are restricted.
  4. There is no independent judiciary.
  5. There is absence of a constitution to protect the rights of its citizens.
  6. People are not allowed to criticise the government or its decisions.
  7. People are not given the right to vote.

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Question D.3:

What are the features of a federal form of government? Give two examples.

Answer:

Federal form of government is that system under which the power is distributed between central and the state governments.

Features of federal system:

  1. There are two or more levels of government in the country.
  2. The jurisdictions and powers of both central and state governments are defined in its constitution.
  3. Central laws are applicable to all states but its vice versa is not true.
  4. Central and state governments have their own tax system to generate revenues.
  5. It promotes unity in country while respecting the regional diversity among states.
Examples:
  • India: It has 29 state governments and one central government to command it.
  • Canada: It has divided powers between the federal parliament and the provinces.

 

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Question D.4:

Why is written constitution necessary?

Answer:

Written constitution is necessary for a number of factors. These have been discussed below:

1) In a written constitution, the possibilities of  any doubt arising regarding the distribution of power are low. As we already know that in a federal form of government, power is distributed between the union and states, there are chances of feuds regarding power distribution. However, a written constitution helps a federal country to overcome all such issues. 
2) For clear demarcation of powers between the legislature, executive and judiciary, written constitution is the best. It lays proper written principles guiding the distribution of functions. 
3) In a country of diversity, a written constitution is nothing less than the guardian of human or fundamental rights of the people. 

Page No 23:

Question D.5:

Which categories are denied the right to vote in most countries?

Answer:

Following are the categories that are denied the right to vote in most countries:

  1. Non-citizens of the country 
  2. Aliens (foreign nationals) 
  3. Mentally retarded people 
  4. Citizens below the age of 18
  5. Criminals convicted in crimes 

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Question D.6:

In ancient times we were subjects of kings in our country. Today, we are citizens of our country. What is the difference?

Answer:

In ancient times, we were completely dependant upon the king. Kingship was usually hereditary and passed from one generation to  another. The people of the kingdom were under authority of the king and they were subjects of the king. They wholly relied upon the king for any kind of trade permissions or farming tax system. The king had all the authority to put any order in motion in its kingdom without taking any consent from the people. 

But now, people are under the democratic rule and hence, they enjoy not only freedom but also the liberty to act. They select and vote for the government to rule over the country. After every 5 years, people have the opportunity to change or continue with the same government. Under the democratic system, citizens of the country hold supreme power of voting. They can freely participate in voting and also enjoy fundamental rights, which was not possible at the time of kings.



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