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#### Question A.1:

Which of the following countries is smaller than India in terms of area?

a. Argentina
b. Australia
c. China

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: India is the seventh largest country in the world after Russia, USA, Canada, China, Brazil and Australia in terms of area. Argentina is smaller than India.

#### Question A.2:

The southernmost limit of the mainland of India is at

a. 8° 4' S
b. 5° 40' N
c. 8° 4' N
d. 37° 6' N

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: India lies completely in the Northern Hemisphere. The Indian mainland stretches between ​8° 4'N in the south and 37° 6'N latitude in the north .

#### Question A.3:

The northernmost limit of India is at

a. 37° 6' N
b. 8° 4' N
c. 67° 3' N
d. 36° 7' N

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: India lies completely in the Northern Hemisphere. The Indian mainland stretches between ​8° 4'N in the south and 37° 6'N latitude in the north latitude.

#### Question A.4:

Which of the following is not a Union Territory?

a. Chandigarh
b. Delhi
c. Meghalaya
d. Puducherry

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: There are seven union territories in India, namely Delhi, Chandigarh, Puducherry, Daman and Diu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Meghalaya, on the other hand, is a state.

#### Question A.5:

Which of the following states is landlocked?

a. Gujarat
b. Chhattisgarh
c. Odisha

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Odisha are coastal states. Gujarat borders the Arabian Sea and Tamil Nadu and Odisha borders the Bay of Bengal. Chhattisgarh, on the other hand, is a landlocked state that shares no boundary with any sea.

#### Question A.6:

Which of the following states does not have a common boundary with Pakishtan?

a. Haryana
b. Rajasthan
c. Punjab
d. Gujarat

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Pakistan shares a common boundary with Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Haryana does not share a common boundary with Pakistan.

#### Question A.7:

Which of the following states does not have a common boundary with Nepal?

a. Uttarakhand
b. West Bengal
c. Jharkhand
d. Sikkim

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The states that share a common boundary with Nepal are Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Sikkim. Jharkhand does not share a common boundary with Nepal.

#### Question A.8:

Which of the following states is not included in the Seven Sisters?

a. Mizoram
b. Tripura
c. Nagaland
d.  Sikkim

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The Seven Sisters are Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. These are the northeastern states of India. Sikkim, on the other hand, is considered the brother state of these states.

#### Question B:

1. India is the __________ largest country in the world.
2. The Tropic of __________ divides India into two halves.
3. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about ___________
4. ___________ and _____________ are India's neighbours in he north-west.

1. India is the seventh largest country in the world.​

Explanation: India is the seventh largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia.

2. The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two halves.

Explanation: The Indian mainland lies completely in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into two equal halves. It passes through the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.

3. ​The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30 degrees.

Explanation: The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the Indian mainland is almost the same, i.e. approximately 30 degrees.

4. Afghanistan and Pakistan are India's neighbours in the northwest.

Explanation: India is surrounded by sea on three sides. The northwest neighbours are Afghanistan and Pakistan. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat share a boundary with Pakistan, while Jammu and Kashmir alone shares a boundary with Afghanistan.

#### Question C:

Name the following.

1. Countries having larger area than India
2. Water bodies around India
3. Union Territories of India
4. States having common boundary with china
5. States included in the Seven Sisters
6. Name of the national symbols of India
7. States having common boundary with Bangladesh
9. Neighbouring states of Assam

1. Countries having larger area than India are Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil and Australia.

2. Water bodies around India are the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean.

3. Union territories of India are Delhi, Chandigarh, Puducherry, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

4. The names of the states having a common boundary with China are Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

5. The names of the states included in the Seven Sisters are Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

6. The names of the national symbols of India are as follows:

• National emblem - Ashoka Pillar of Sarnath
• National animal - Tiger
• National bird - Peacock
• National tree - Banyan
• National flower - Lotus
7. The states having a common boundary with Bangladesh are West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura.

9. The neighbouring states of Assam are Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura and West Bengal.

#### Question D:

1. Indira Point is the southernmost tip on the Indian mainland. ______________
2. India has 28 states and seven Union Territrories. ___________
3. Madhya Pradesh is the largest state of India in terms of area. ___________
4. Lakshadweep is located along the west coast of India. ____________

1. The given statement is false.

Explanation: Kanyakumari is the southernmost point of the Indian mainland, whereas Indira Point is the southernmost point of the whole country, as it is located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

2. ​The given statement is false.

Explanation: India has 29 states and 7 union territories. With the recent bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh into Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, the number of states in India has been increased from 28 to 29.

3. ​The given statement is false.

Explanation: Rajasthan is the largest state of India in terms of area. ​Madhya Pradesh used to hold this position in the past, but after its bifurcation, which led to the formation of the new state of  Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan took this slot.

4. ​The given statement is true.

Explanation: Lakshadweep is located off the western coast of India. It is a group of 36 islands in the Lakshadweep Sea.

#### Question E:

 Column A Column B 1. Gujrat a. Raipur 2. Mizoram b. Ranchi 3. Kerala c. Gandhinagar 4. Punjab d. Thiruvananthpuram 5. Jharkhand c. Aizawl 6. Chhattisgarh f. Chandigarh

 Column A Column B 1. Gujarat Gandhinagar 2. Mizoram Aizawl 3. Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 4. Punjab Chandigarh 5. Jharkhand Ranchi 6. Chhattisgarh Raipur

Explanation:

1. The capital city of Gujarat is Gandhinagar. It is the administrative capital city of Gujarat.

2. The ​capital city of Mizoram is Aizawl. The Tropic of Cancer passes through Mizoram.

3. ​The capital city of Kerala is Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala lies on that west coast of India.

4. ​The capital city of Punjab is Chandigarh. It is the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.

5. ​The capital city of Jharkhand is Ranchi. Jharkhand was formed by the bifurcation of Bihar.

6. ​The capital city of Chhattisgarh is Raipur. Chhattisgarh was formed by the bifurcation of Madya Pradesh.

#### Question F:

1. What is the length of the land frontier of India?
2. Name the southernmost point of India.
3. Name the largest state in terms of area.
4. Name the smallest state in terms of area.
5. Name the capital of India.

1. The length of the land frontier of India is 15,200 kilometres.

2. Indira Point is the southernmost point of India and Kanyakumari is the southernmost point of the Indian mainland.

3. Rajasthan is the largest state of India in terms of area.

4. In terms of area, Goa is the smallest state of India.

5. New Delhi is the capital of India.

#### Question G.1:

What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India?

India lies completely in the Northern Hemisphere. The Indian mainland stretches between ​8° 4'N latitude in the south and 37° 6'N latitude in the north. The longitudinal extent is 68° 7'E in the west and 97° 25'E in the east.

#### Question G.2:

What is the standard meridian of India?

Time at any particular place is calculated on the basis of the longitudinal extent of that place. Since India has a vast longitudinal extent, 82${\frac{1}{2}}^{}$ degrees has been chosen as the standard meridian of India. It has been done because of the centrality of longitude. The local time at the standard meridian is known as Indian Standard Time.

#### Question G.3:

Name the countries with whom India has a common land boundary.

Following are the names of the countries with whom India shares a common land boundary:

• Pakistan
• Afghanistan
• China
• Nepal
• Bhutan
• Myanmar
​​

#### Question G.4:

Name the states situated along the coast of India.

Following are the states situated along the coast of India:

• Gujarat
• ​Goa
• Maharashtra
• Karnataka
• Kerala
• Odisha
• ​West Bengal

#### Question H.1:

Describe the location of extent of India.

India lies in the Northern Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere. The Indian mainland stretches between ​8° 4'N latitude in the south and 37° 6'N latitude in the north. The longitudinal extent is 68° 7'E in the west and 97° 25'E in the east. It lies in the southern part of Asia. On three sides, India is surrounded by sea. Owing to its strategic location, it plays a great role in trade and commerce of the world. The east‒west extent of India is approximately 2,933 km and the north‒south extent is approximately 3,214 km.

#### Question H.2:

What is the importance of India's location?

India is located completely in the Northern Hemisphere. It is in the southern part of the Asian continent and is to the north of the Indian Ocean. India is strategically located to support trade activities. It has a very long coastline of around 7,514 kilometres. It is connected to the rest of the world via a sea route. India also has a land frontier of 15,200 kilometres. Thus, it will not be wrong to say that India has a prime location on the world map.

#### Question H.3:

Why do we need a standard time for our country?

When the ​east‒west stretch of a country is vast, it creates confusion due to variation in time in the same country. Difrent parts of the same country actually has diffent time ast the same point.This confusion results in the need for a standard time to maintain a uniformity throughout the country. Since the longitudinal extent of India is almost 30 degrees, India has adopted 82.5o longitude, which is in the middle, as the measure for calculating standard time of the country.

#### Question H.4:

Distinguish between IST and GMT.

 IST GMT It stands for Indian Standard Time. It stands for Greenwich Mean Time. It is calculated at 82.5° longitude. It is calculated at 0° longitude. The standard meridian passes through Allahabad in India. The standard meridian passes through Greenwich near London.

Indian Standard Time is exactly 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. For example, if it is 12 pm (noon) in London, then it will be 05:30 pm in India.

#### Question H,5:

Why is IST ahead of GMT?

The Earth has been divided into longitudes so that the time of any place can be calculated. Three hundred and sixty degrees are divided into twenty-four hours of time period. So, one degree accounts for 4 minutes. The standard time of India is calculated at 82${\frac{1}{2}}^{\mathrm{o}}$ east of Greenwich. It means that the meridian of IST is located in the Eastern Hemisphere. Sunrise is accordingly calculated in this hemisphere. Hence, the meridians in this hemisphere are ahead of GMT. On multiplying the meridian 82${\frac{1}{2}}^{\mathrm{o}}$ with 4 minutes, we get 5 hours and 30 minutes. This way IST is ahead of GMT.

#### Question H.6:

Why is 82⅟2° E longitude chosen as the standard meridian for India?

India has a vast longitudinal stretch, and the local time calculated at every meridian is different. Since this might lead to confusion regarding the time, a standard meridian was chosen to calculate the time of the whole country. 82⅟2°E longitude was chosen because it lies almost in the centre of India. The standard meridian is also necessary for commercial, travel and logistical purposes within the country.

#### Question H.7:

Do you think the re-organization of states on the basis of language is justified? Give reasons.