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Page No 62:

Question A.1:

Which one of the following is not a domain of the earth?

a. Barysphere
b. Hydrosphere
c. Atmosphere
d. Lithosphere

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Following are the three domains responsible for the existence of life on the Earth:

  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Lithosphere

Page No 62:

Question A.2:

Which one of the following is the largest continent?

a. North America
b. Africa
c. Asia
d. South America

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: There are seven continents on the Earth. Among these seven continents, Asia is the largest in terms of population and area.

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Question A.3:

Which mountain range separates Europe from Asia?

a. The Andes
b. The Himalayas
c. The Alps
d. The Urals

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The Urals separate the continents of Europe and Asia. These high mountain ranges are located on the east of Europe and on the west of Asia.

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Question A.4:

The continent of North America is linked to South America by a/an

a. strait
b. canal
c. isthmus
d. sea

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The continent of North America is linked with South America by the Isthmus of Panama. It is a narrow land mass between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea that separates the two continents.

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Question A.5:

Which one of the following continents lies on both sides of the equator?

a. North America
b. Africa
c. Australia
d. Europe

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The Equator divides the continent of Africa in almost two equal halves. Thus, the African continent lies on both sides of the Equator.

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Question A.6:

Who was the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean?

a. Ferdinand Magellan
b. Francis Drake
c. Vasco da Gama
d. Christopher Columbus

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: â€‹Ferdinand Magellan, a European sailor, was the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean in the year 1520. He named the ocean 'Pacific' because the winds that blew above it were very gentle and mild.

Page No 62:

Question A.7:

Water vapour in the atmosphere is confined only to the

a. thermosphere
b. troposphere
c. stratosphere
d. mesosphere

Answer:

​The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Water vapour in the atmosphere is confined only to its lower layer, i.e. troposphere. This is the reason all weather phenomena occur only in this layer.

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Question A.8:

The interaction of which one of the following spheres do not make up the biosphere?

a. Lithosphere
b. Hydrosphere
c. Atmosphere
d. Asthenosphere

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The biosphere is the zone where the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere interact with each other. This narrow sphere of the Earth supports life. The asthenosphere lies below the crust of the Earth.

Page No 62:

Question B:

1. Asia and Europe are together known as _________
2. The highest mountain peak in Europe is _________
3. La Plata river basin in South America is called the ___________
4. The _________ Ocean is known as 'half an ocean'.

Answer:

1. Asia and Europe are together known as Eurasia.

Explanation: Europe is seen as the landmass extending towards the Asian continent in its west direction. Europe and Asia together are known as Eurasia.

2. The highest mountain peak in Europe is​ Mount Elbrus.

Explanation: Europe is a continent known for high mountains; Mount Elbrus located in Caucasus is the highest mountain peak of Europe.

3. La Plata river basin in South America is called the​ Gran Chaco.

Explanation: The South American continent is mostly drained by three river systems, i.e. Orinoco, Amazon and La Plata. The La Plata river basin in South America is known as the Gran Chaco. 

4. The Indian Ocean is known as 'half an ocean'.

Explanation: Since the Indian Ocean is separated from the Arctic Ocean by the Asian continent, it does not open in the north direction. This is the reason it is referred to as 'half an ocean'.

Page No 62:

Question C:

Name the following.

1. Domain of the earth _________________________________
2. Any three deserts in Africa __________________________
3. Continents lying only in the Northern Hemisphere ________________________
4. Major oceans _______________________
5. Gases found in the atmosphere ____________________

Answer:

1. The domain of the Earth represents three states of matter, which are as follows:

  • Lithosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Atmosphere


2. Desert is the region that receives scanty rainfall and has low humidity. Following are the deserts in Africa:
  • The Kalahari
  • The Sahara
  • The Namibian Desert



3. The land mass of the Earth is not evenly distributed. Some continents are located in the Northern Hemisphere and some in the Southern Hemisphere. The continents lying only in Northern Hemisphere are as follows:
  • Asia
  • Europe
  • North America


4. Seventy-one percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water. The names of the major oceans are as follows:
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Indian Ocean


5. The cover of air that extends to a height of around 1,600 kilometres is known as the atmosphere. The composition of the gases in the atmosphere is as follows:
  • Nitrogen - 78%
  • Oxygen - 21%
  • Argon - 0.93%
  • Carbon dioxide - 0.03%
  • Water vapour
  • Others gases like argon, helium and ozone

Page No 62:

Question D:

1. The Great Barrier Reef is found along the north-western coast of Australia. ___________
2. The Caribbean Island off the Gulf of Mexico are called West Indies. _____________
3. Mt Aconcagua is the highest mountain peak in the Andes mountains. ___________
4. The Atlantic Ocean got its name from the peaceful winds blowing there. ___________

Answer:

1. The given statement is false.

Explanation: The Great Barrier Reef is formed by the corals; it is located along the northeastern coast of the Australian continent.


2. â€‹The given statement is true.

Explanation: The Caribbean Islands off the Gulf of Mexico are called West Indies. The adjoining water body is known as the Caribbean Sea.


3. â€‹â€‹The given statement is true.

Explanation: The Andes are the longest unbroken chain of mountains in the world. Mount Aconcagua is the highest mountain peak in the Andes mountains.


4. â€‹The given statement is false.

Explanation: The Pacific Ocean was named Pacific by Ferdinand Magellan. He named it so because of the peaceful winds blowing over the ocean.



Page No 63:

Question E:

  Column A   Column B
1. Europe a. Maitri
2. North America b. Dead Sea
3. Antarctica c. The Alps
4. Asia d. Great Rift Valley
5. Africa e. Grand Canyon

Answer:

The correct match is as follows:
 

Column A Column B
1. Europe c. The Alps
2. North America e. Grand Canyon
3. Antarctica a. Maitri
4. Asia b. Dead Sea
5. Africa d. Great Rift Valley

Explanation:


1. Europe - The Alps 

The Alps are a chain of mountains in Europe, extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Caspian Sea. Mont Blanc is the highest peak of the Alps.

2. North America - Grand Canyon 

The rivers in North America cut the soft rocks in the basin to form canyons. The Grand Canyon is the deepest canyon formed by the River Colorado.

3. Antarctica - Maitri

The scientific study centre established by the team of Indian scientists in Antarctica in 1988‒89 was named as Maitri. It was the eighteenth expedition of the team.

4. Asia - Dead Sea

The Dead Sea is the lowest point of the Earth; it is 418 metres below the sea level. It is bordered by Jordan, Palestine and Israel.

5. Africa - Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley is an important geographical feature of the African continent; it has neither high mountains nor extensive plains.

Page No 63:

Question F:

Distinguish between the following.

1. Lithosphere and hydrosphere
2. Eurasia and Australasia
3. Atmosphere and biosphere

Answer:

1.

Lithosphere Hydrosphere
It is the solid domain of the Earth composed of the land mass of the Earth's crust. The availability of water is a unique feature of the Earth. The domain of the Earth's surface comprising water, including oceans, seas, rivers and lakes, is known as the hydrosphere. 
It covers around 29% of the Earth's surface.
It covers 71% of the Earth's surface.
It is divided into seven continents: Asia, Africa, Antarctica, North America, South America, Europe and Australia. It is divided into five oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Antarctic, Indian and Arctic.

2. â€‹
Eurasia Australasia
The European and Asian land masses together are known as Eurasia. Australia along with neighbouring island countries is known as Australasia.
It is surrounded by the Atlantic, Arctic and Indian Oceans. It is surrounded by the Indian Ocean on the east side.
Its major portion is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It is entirely located in the Southern Hemisphere. 

3. â€‹
Atmosphere Biosphere
The air around the Earth's surface till a height of 1,600 kilometres is known as the atmosphere. It is a narrow zone of the Earth's surface where different domains like air, water and land interact to support life. 
It is composed of gases like nitrogen, oxygen, ozone and carbon dioxide and water vapour. It comprises both biotic and abiotic factors responsible for the existence of life.
It is one of the components of the biosphere and is important for the existence of life on the Earth. The existence of life is confined to the biosphere only.

Page No 63:

Question G:

1. Lithosphere
2. Hydrosphere
3. Atmosphere
4. Biosphere
5. Antarctica
6. Pacific Ocean
7. Atlantic Ocean
8. Indian Ocean
9. Troposphere

Answer:

1. Lithosphere: It is the domain of the Earth that is composed of the solid mass of the Earth's surface and includes rocks and soil on its crust. It covers around 29% of the Earth's surface. It is divided into seven continents Asia, Africa, Antarctica, North America, South America, Europe and Australia.

2. Hydrosphere: The availability of water is a unique feature of the Earth. The domain of the Earth's surface comprising water, including oceans, seas, rivers and lakes, is known as the hydrosphere. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface.

3. Atmosphere: The air around the Earth's surface till a height of 1,600 kilometres is known as the atmosphere. It is composed of gases like nitrogen, oxygen, ozone and carbon dioxide and water vapour. It is an essential factor for the existence of life on the Earth, as it prevents harmful rays of the Sun from reaching the surface of the Earth.

4. Biosphere: It is a narrow zone of the Earth's surface where different domains like air, water and land interact with each other to support life. 
 
5. Antarctica: The continent is completely covered with ice; hence, it is known as the white continent. It is located near the South Pole and provides avenues for weather-related discoveries. This is the reason it is also known as the continent of science.

6. Pacific Ocean: This ocean was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan. It was named so because of the presence of steady, calm and swift winds around it. It is the largest and deepest ocean in the world. Also, more than 75% of the active volcanoes are found in the land bordering the Pacific.

7. Atlantic Ocean: This ocean is roughly half the size of the Pacific Ocean. It is the busiest sea route owing to its strategic location. It is located between North and South America on the west side and Europe and Africa on the east side. 

8. Indian Ocean: It is the only ocean that has been named after a country. The reason is that India is strategically located to its north and had a great role in international trade via sea in ancient times. It is bounded on three sides by three continents, i.e. Africa on the east, Asia on the north and Australia on the west.

9. Troposphere: It is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere and extends to a height of around 18 kilometres at the Equator and 8 kilometres at the poles. All weather phenomena occur in this layer only, as it contains almost 90% of the atmospheric air. In this layer, temperature decreases at the rate of 1oC per 165 metres.

Page No 63:

Question H:

1. Name the largest continent.
2. Name the highest mountain peak.
3. Name the smallest continent.
4. Which is the longest mountain chain?
5. What is the average depth of ocean water?
6. Name the deepest trench.
7. Name the largest ocean.
8. Which is the fourth domain of the earth?

Answer:

1. The largest continent on the Earth is Asia. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere.

2. Mount Everest is the highest mountain peak in the world. It is situated in Nepal at a height of 8,848 metres from the sea level.

3. Australia is the smallest continent in the world; it is located in the Southern Hemisphere. 

4. The Andes in South America is the longest unbroken chain of mountains, with Mount Aconcagua as its highest peak.

5. Oceans are deep and vast bodies of water. The average depth of oceans is 3,800 metres.

6. The Mariana Trench is the deepest trench at a depth of 11,022 metres; it is located towards the east of the Pacific Ocean.

7. The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean in the world. It covers the area that is more than the total area of all the continents taken together.

8. The biosphere is the fourth domain of the Earth. It is the zone where land, air and water interact with each other to support life.

Page No 63:

Question I.1:

Name the continents in increasing order of their size.

Answer:

The names of continents in increasing order of their size are as follows:

  1. Australia 
  2. Europe
  3. Antarctica
  4. South America
  5. North America
  6. Africa
  7. Asia 

Page No 63:

Question I.2:

Name the oceans in increasing order of their size.

Answer:

The names of the oceans in order of their increasing size are as follows:

  1. The Arctic Ocean 
  2. The Indian Ocean
  3. The Atlantic Ocean
  4. The Pacific Ocean 

Page No 63:

Question I.3:

What is the composition of the atmosphere?

Answer:

The atmosphere is composed of several odourless, tasteless, colourless gases. The cover of the air that extends to a height of around 1,600 kilometres from the Earth's surface is known as the atmosphere. The composition of the air in the atmosphere is as follows:

  • Nitrogen - 78%
  • Oxygen - 21%
  • Argon - 0.93%
  • Carbon dioxide - 0.03%
  • Water vapour
  • Others gases like argon, helium and ozone

Page No 63:

Question I.4:

Name the different layers of the atmosphere.

Answer:

Following are the layers of the atmosphere:

  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Exosphere
  • Ionosphere

Page No 63:

Question I.5:

What are the main elements of biosphere?

Answer:

The biosphere is a narrow zone where land, air and water interact with each other to support several forms of life. The biotic or living elements of the biosphere are plants, animals, human beings and microbes. They are dependent on one another for their existence. The abiotic or non-living components of the biosphere include rocks and minerals.

Page No 63:

Question J.1:

Write about at least one important physical feature from each continent.

Answer:

Important physical features of all continents are given below.

1. Africa: This continent has a lot of plateaus but no high mountains. A large part of the continent is covered with deserts, e.g. the Sahara Desert, the Kalahari Desert and the Namibian Desert. It also has thick forests in the equatorial region.

2. Asia: It is known as the continent of extremes because in this continent, the highest peak and the lowest point of Earth's surface are found, i.e. Mount Everest, which is the highest peak in the world, and the Mariana Trench, which is the lowest point of the Earth's surface. All kinds of topographic features are found in this continent.

3. Australia: It is a land of plateaus with few dispersed low mountain ranges. The Great Barrier Reef is an important feature of the continent, which is formed by the corals.

4. Europe: It is the only continent that is both populous and prosperous. It is a land of high mountains. Finland in Europe has more than 50,000 lakes; the continent is extremely beautiful.

5. North America: It is a land with extensive plains, mountain ranges and ancient plateaus. Grasslands are an important feature of this place. For example, the Prairies are important grasslands of this region.

6. South America: The Andes is the longest unbroken chain of mountains in the world. Apart from the mountains, almost half of the continent is covered with lowlands and river basins.

7. Antarctica: It has some mountain ranges and vast plateaus. It is completely covered with ice. Therefore, it is also known as the white continent.

Page No 63:

Question J.2:

What is the importance of oceans for human beings?

Answer:

The importance of oceans for human beings can be understood with the help of the following points:

  • They are a storehouse of a large number of minerals and energy resources.
  • They provide a large number of fish and other marine animals used as food in large quantities.
  • They play an important role in causing humidity in the atmosphere; this ultimately leads to rain.
  • They act as important trade routes.
  • They act as a link between several continents.
  • They are an important source of common salt.
  • They help in regulating climate by storing carbon; they also have a stabilising influence on the water cycle.
  • Tidal energy is of great potential in the present era of energy crisis.

Page No 63:

Question J.3:

What is the importance of the atmosphere?

Answer:

The importance of the atmosphere can be understood with the help of the below-mentioned points:

  • The atmosphere has gases like oxygen and nitrogen that are essential for the existence of life on the Earth.
  • The ozone layer in the atmosphere prevents harmful ultraviolet radiations from reaching the Earth's surface.
  • The presence of gases ensures that the temperature of the Earth's surface does not reach extremes during day and night.
  • The atmosphere is responsible for the occurrence of phenomena like condensation, evaporation and precipitation.
  • The transmission of sound waves from one place to another is possible only because of the presence of air in the atmosphere.

Page No 63:

Question J.4:

How is human beings disturbing the delicate balance of nature?

Answer:

In ancient times, when the population was small, people were directly dependent on the nature for their needs. But with increasing population, the needs and requirements of the people started increasing day by day. This started taking a huge toll on the ecological balance of nature. Human beings ended up altering the delicate balance of nature through the following ways:​

  • By large-scale mining of minerals and other natural resources
  • By large-scale burning of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, etc.
  • By illegally dumping wastes in oceans and water bodies
  • By rampant clearing of forest lands 
The delicate composition of gases in the atmosphere has been disturbed because of these activities. It has caused increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and has ultimately led to global warming and climate change.

Page No 63:

Question J.5:

Why is the biosphere important for living organisms?

Answer:

The biosphere is a narrow zone of Earth's surface where the interaction between land, water and air takes place. It supports life on the Earth. Here, the three domains of the Earth, i.e. lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere, come in contact with each other and support life. The elements of the biosphere are plants, animals, human beings and microbes, which constitute its biotic components. All these elements are interlinked in one way or the other and support life. Since we are dependent on the biosphere for our existence, it is our duty to maintain its balance. The abiotic components of the biosphere are rocks and minerals.

Page No 63:

Question J.6:

Why is the earth called the blue planet?

Answer:

The Earth is also known as the blue planet because of the presence of water on it. It is the only planet in the universe that has water. When seen from the outer space, the Earth appears blue because of the presence of water on it. This is the reason it has been called the blue planet. Seventy-one percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Out of this, ninety-seven percent of water is concentrated in the oceans, which are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and the Indian Oceans. The remaining water is found in rivers, icecaps, glaciers, etc.

Page No 63:

Question J.7:

Why is Antarctica called the 'Continent of Science'?

Answer:

Antarctica is located near the South Pole. It is completely covered with ice; hence, it is known as the white continent. Since it is very unapproachable and harbours extreme weather conditions, not much is known about it. It was first discovered in 1820. The continent provides avenues for scientific studies related to different fields. Thus, many countries have established scientific study centres here. It also provides opportunities to study weather. This is the reason it is also known as the continent of science.

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Question J.8:

Why does the air temperature decrease with an increase in height?

Answer:

The Earth is not directly heated by the rays of the Sun; it is heated by the reflection of the sunrays from its own surface. The surface of the Earth reflects the sunrays that fall upon it, causing an increase in the temperature of the surrounding air, but with increase in height, the distance from the surface increases and hence heating decreases. Thus, the air temperature decreases with increase in height. There is a decrease of 1 °C in temperature with an increase of 165 metres.
 



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