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Page No 100:

Question A1:

The ______________ are commentaries on the Vedas.
a. Upanishads
b. Puranas
c. Brahmanas
d. Jatakas

Answer:

 The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The collection of books known as the Brahmanas includes legends, explanation of Vedic rituals, facts. Hence, they are considered to be commentaries on the Veda.

Page No 100:

Question A2:

The Ramayana was composed by
a. Sage Ved Vyasa
b. Sage Valmiki
c. Sage Gautama
d. Sage Parashar.

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Sage Valmiki had composed Ramayana, which is an epic poem written in Sanskrit. Prince Rama of Kosala is the central character of the poem. His war with Ravana, the king of Lanka is equally important.

Page No 100:

Question A3:

_________________ are dome-shaped structures where relics of the Buddha or Buddhist monks are kept.
a. Viharas
b. Toranas
c. Chaityas
d. Stupas

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The stupas are architectural structures built by the Buddhists that contain relics. They serve as places of meditation. The decorations on the surrounding railings and gateways depict events from Buddha’s life. The Great Stupa at Sanchi and the Dhamek Stupa at Sarnath are famous.


 

Page No 100:

Question A4:

The Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram was built by the
a. Pallavas
b. Cheras
c. Cholas
d. Pandyas

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The Shore Temple was built by the Pallavas during the reign of Narasimhavarman II. The temple had been named so because it overlooks the shore of the Bay of Bengal. The Pallavas also built the Ratha Temple at Mahabalipuram and Kailasanath Temple at Kanchi

Page No 100:

Question A5:

_______________ was a specialist in cosmetic surgery.
a. Sushruta
b. Dhanvantari
c. Charaka
d. Aryabhata

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Progress was achieved in the fields of science and medicine. Sushruta specialised in cosmetic surgery and performed several operations specifically nose reconstruction. He along with Charaka helped in the advancement of medicine.

Page No 100:

Question A6:

_______________ mathematicians knew the use of zero.
a. French
b. Greek
c. Indian
d. Roman

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The Indian mathematicians had a symbol for zero. This counting system was later adopted by the Europeans and Arabs.


 

Page No 100:

Question B:

1. There are over one hundred Puranas. ___________
2. The Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Ramayana. ___________
3. The Ratha Temple at Kanchi was built by the Chalukyan kings. ___________
4. The Mauryan kings constructed the Iron Pillar. ___________

Answer:

1. The statement is false.

Explanation: The Puranas are sacred Hindu texts that praise the deities, especially the Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva). There are 18 Puranas.


 

2. The statement is false.

Explanation: Mahabharata was written by Sage Ved Vyasa. Bhagavad Gita is the conversation between Krishna and Arjun on the battlefield of Kurukshetra. It teaches the way of life and is the holy book of Hindus.


 

3. The statement is false.

Explanation: The Kailasanath Temple of Kanchi was built by the Pallavas. It is dedicated to the deity Shiva in the form of Kailasanathar.


 

4. The statement is false.

Explanation: The Iron Pillar in Delhi was built by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya of the Gupta Empire. It is located in the Qutub complex. It has attracted the attention of archaeologists because of its resistance to corrosion.

Page No 100:

Question C:

1. The Arthashastra and the Indika tell us about this dynasty. ___________
2. Kalidasa used this language to write his poems and plays. ___________
3. Fa Hien came to India during the reign of this Gupta king. ___________
4. Brihat Samhita was written by ___________

Answer:

1. The answer is Mauryas.

Explanation: The Arthashastra was written by Kautilya and the Indika was written by Megasthenes. They provide information about the administration and governance of the Mauryan Empire. The political, social and economic conditions are also throw light upon in these books.


 

2. The answer is Sanskrit.

Explanation: Kalidasa, who lived during the Gupta period was a great dramatist. He produced his literary works in Sanskrit. Some of his works are Meghaduta, Ritusamhara, Raghuvamsa and Kumarasambhava.


 

3. The answer is Chandragupta II.

Explanation: Fa Hien was a pilgrim who visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II. He lived for six years, from AD 405-411, in India. His writings give an account of the rule and administration of the Gupta Kings and the people under them.


 

4. The answer is Varahamihira.

Explanation: The encyclopaedic Brihat Samhita was written by Varahamihira. He was an astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. The book contained various subjects like astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, architecture, matrimony, agriculture, etc.



Page No 101:

Question D1:

What do you know about the Mahabaharata?

Answer:

The Mahabharata is an epic poem written by Sage Ved Vyasa. In the story, the Kauravas and Pandavas are cousins who fight the Kurukshetra war. The war is finally won by the Pandavas. The Bhagvada Gita, an important part of the epic, is where Lord Krishna gives an inspirational speech to Arjun on the battlefield.


 

Page No 101:

Question D2:

List some of the temples built during the ancient period.

Answer:

Some of the temples built in ancient India are as follows:

a) The cave temples of Ajanta: This Buddhist masterpiece is situated in Maharashtra.

b) The Dasavatar Temple at Deogarh: This temple is dedicated to Lord Vishnu who had ten incarnations.

c) The Ratha temple, Shore temple at Mahabalipuram, Kailasanath temple at Kanchi: These temples were built by the Pallavas.

Page No 101:

Question D3:

Write a note on the progress made in the field of medicine during the ancient period.

Answer:

The field of medicine made great progress during the ancient period. Several learned men had great contributions to this field. Charaka wrote the Charaka Samhita, a text on Ayurveda. Sushruta performed cosmetic surgeries, specifically nose reconstruction. All these efforts laid the foundation of medicine in India.

Page No 101:

Question D4:

What is special about the Iron Pillar?

Answer:

The iron pillar built by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya is located at Mehrauli. It is a structure of wonder because despite being built 1,600 years ago, it has resisted corrosion.

Page No 101:

Question E1:

Why is secular literature an important source of history?

Answer:

Secular literature is an important source of history because the works provide an account of the governance of the empires. The administration policies and the ways of the kings are laid out in detail. The financial and economic policies and social conditions of the people can too be understood. For example, the Arthashastra and Indika provide details about the Mauryan Empire and the Harshacharita written by Banabhatta is about King Harshavardhana.


 

Page No 101:

Question E2:

What was common in the structures of the temples constructed during this period?

Answer:

There were commonalities in the structures of temples built during this period. They are as follows:

a) Garbagriha: The chief deity’s image was kept in this room.

b) Shikhara or Vimana: The top of the Garbagriha was marked as sacred by a tower known as Shikhara.

c) Mandapa: The assembly hall where people gathered to pray is known as Mandapa.


 

Page No 101:

Question E3:

Write a note on painting in the Gupta period.

Answer:

The paintings of the Gupta period known as ‘murals’ cover the walls of the Ajanta caves of Maharashtra. The decorations on the monastery depict the ways and events of Lord Buddha’s life. Colours were made from natural sources, which make the paintings glow even today. The magnificence of the paintings attract tourists from all over the world.

Page No 101:

Question E4:

Discuss the progress made in the field of astronomy during the ancient period.

Answer:

Astronomy advanced tremendously during the ancient period. The Romaka Siddhanta is an Indian astronomical treatise. Aryabhatta, an astronomer and mathematician, is known for his book Aryabhatiya. He mentions the Earth’s movement around the Sun and its rotation on its axis.

Varahamihira, also an astronomer and mathematician, had written Brihat Samhita that covers the subjects of planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, etc. This proves the advanced thinking that Indians had of astronomy in the ancient times.

Page No 101:

Question E5:

Political stability leads to overall prosperity. Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your argument.

Answer:

Yes, political stability is essential for the overall prosperity. The reasons are as follows:

a) The proper functioning of the political machinery enables maintenance of law and order. It is necessary for the progress of a nation and avoidance of anarchy.

b) Discipline would be brought about by political stability helping in the welfare of the people.

c) Economic conditions would improve, thereby making the advancement of individuals as well as the nation easier. The way of lives would become better.

Page No 101:

Question E6:

Do you think that we can rely completely on the accounts of foreign travellers to reconstruct the history of a period? Give reasons in support of your argument.

Answer:

The accounts of the foreign travellers cannot be completely relied upon. This is because they used to visit India as pilgrims and lived for a few years. They lived under the patronage of a ruler. The accounts of the administration and governance was thrown light upon in their writings. This can often be biased and elucidate on the positive elements of an empire. The lives of the common people and the functioning of the empire at the grass-roots level was overlooked. Hence, they provided only a partial idea of events.


 



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