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Page No 58:

Question A1:

Gautam Buddha's father was the chief of ______________ clan.
a. Jnatrika
b. Lichchhavi
c. Kamboja
d. Shakya

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The father of Gautam Buddha was King Suddhodana and he belonged to the Shakya clan with its capital at Kapilavastu.

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Question A2:

The pipal tree under which Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment, came to be known as
a. dharmachakra pravartana
b. bodhi vrikhsha
c. ashtangika marga
d. middle path

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The peepal tree under which Buddha attained enlightenment came to be known as Bodhi Vriksha. It is also known as the Tree of Wisdom. It is located at Gaya in Bihar.  

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Question A3:

According t the Buddha leading a balanced life would help a person attain
a. moksha
b. nirvana
c. Both a and b
d. Only a

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: According to Buddha, leading a balanced life would lead to a person attaining both moksha and nirvana. Leading a balanced life involves following a middle path, which is a path of moderation.

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Question A4:

Buddhist monks stayed together in
a. temples
b. forests
c. sangha
d. caves

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Buddhist monks stayed together in sanghas. The Buddha and his disciples established various monasteries or viharas. In these monasteries, the monks lived together in a sangha.


 

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Question A5:

The Jains believe that Mahavira was the last of the _____________ tirthankaras.
a. 23
b. 18
c. 22
d. 24

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Jains believe that Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankar. The 23rd Tirthankar was Lord Rishabhdeva and Mahavira was the last and the 24th Tirthankar.


 

Page No 58:

Question A6:

Mahavira was born at
a. Rajgriha
b. Kundagrama
c. Lumbini
d. Ujjayini

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Mahavira was born in Kundagrama near Vaishali in Bihar. His father was the head of Jnatrika clan and his mother was a Lichchavi princess.


 

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Question A7:

Mahavira taught in
a. Prakrit
b. Sanskrit
c. Pali
d. Persian

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Mahavira taught in the Prakrit language, which was the language spoken by common people, instead of Sanskrit, which was the language of the learned few. By using the language of the common people, Mahavira was able to propagate his teachings and his ideals to a large number of people and this helped in spreading the popularity of Jainism.


 

Page No 58:

Question A8:

The main philosophy of the Upanishads is ______________ and _______________
a. eight-fold path, middle path
b. tri-ratnas, karma
c. upasana, bhakti
d. yoga, karma

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The main philosophy of the Upanishads is Upasana (worship) and Bhakti (devotion). The Upanishads give importance to the worship of one God. They discuss about how the atma can be made one with the cosmic soul or parmatma.


 

Page No 58:

Question B:

Correct the following statements by changing the underlined word.

1.
Ahimsa means freedom from the cycle of birth and death. ____________
2. The Buddha is a state of mind in which there is no suffering. ____________
3. Non-injury to all living beings is called moksha. ______________
4. The teachers of Buddhism are called tirthankaras. ______________
5. Bimbisara was known as 'Jina'. ______________
6. Mundaka is a major Veda. _______________

Answer:

1. The correct answer is Moksha.
Explanation: According to Buddha, leading a balanced life would lead to a person attaining both moksha and nirvana. Leading a balanced life involves following a middle path, which is a path of moderation.
 
2. The correct answer is Buddha.
Explanation: Buddha means the enlightened one or the wise one. It means the one who understands the reason for all the sorrow and suffering in the world and what needs to be done to overcome it.

3. The correct answer is Ahimsa.
Explanation: Moksha means freedom from the cycle of birth and death, whereas Ahimsa means non-violence and non-injury to all living beings.

4. The correct answer is Jainism.
Explanation: Jains believe that there were a total of 24 Tirthankars. The 23rd Tirthankar was Lord Rishabhdeva and Mahavira was the last and the 24th Tirthankar.

5. The correct answer is Mahavira.
Explanation: Mahavira was known as the Jina or the great conqueror. This is because through meditation, he realised the truth and through this knowledge of the truth, he conquered both misery and happiness.

6.The correct answer is Upanishada.
Explanation: The Upanishads are philosophical books. They contain the teachings of many great religious teachers and saints. They are believed to be 108 in total; out of which 11 are considered to be the main Upanishads. Mundaka is the name of a very important Upanishad.



Page No 59:

Question C:

Read the description of the person and match it to the life stage he is in.
 

I am an old man. Both my children are married. I have left home and live in the forest. GRIHASTHA
I am an unmarried boy. I am 14 years old. SANYASA
I am very old. I wander from place to place and live on what people give me to eat. BRAHMACHARYA
I got married a few years ago. I have a small child. VANAPRASTHA

Answer:

1) The correct answer is Vanaprasta.

Explanation: Vanaprastha is the third stage of the ashrama system. Man starts this stage at the age of fifty and continues till he turns seventy-five. During this stage, one needs to hand over all household responsibilities to his next generation and then set to lead a simplistic life in the forests.

2) The correct answer is Brahmacharya.

Explanation: Brahmacharya is the first stage of the ashrama system. This stage lasts till twenty years of a boy's age. During this stage, the boy remains concerned only about his education and is expected to lead a life of celibacy.

3) The correct answer is Sanayasa.

Explanation: This is the last stage of the ashrama system. After the man reaches seventy-five years of age, he is expected to renounce all worldly pleasures and lead a life aimed to achieve Moksha.

4) The correct answer is Grihasta.

Explanation: This is the second stage of the ashrama system. After the man reaches twenty-five years of age, he is expected to get married and fulfil all household duties. Leading a family life is the main focus of this stage.


 

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Question D1:

What were the four sights that Prince Siddhartha is believed to have seen?

Answer:

Prince Siddharta is believed to have seen the following four sights:

  1. A very old man
  2. A sick man
  3. A dead body
  4. An ascetic

Page No 59:

Question D2:

What are the four noble truths preached by the Buddha?

Answer:

The Four Noble Truths preached by Lord Buddha are as follows:

  1. The world is full of suffering.
  2. The main cause of suffering is desire.
  3. One must get rid of desire to end suffering.
  4. To end desire, one must follow the eightfold path.

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Question D3:

What did Mahavira say about the caste system?

Answer:

Mahavira did not believe in the caste system. He preached that it is a person's karma or action and not birth that determines his social status. He also taught that any person, belonging to any caste, could attain liberation through right deeds.

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Question D4:

What are the Upanishads? What do they give importance to?

Answer:

The Upanishads are philosophical books. They contain the teachings of many great religious teachers and saints. They are believed to be 108 in total, out of which 11 are considered to be the main Upanishads.
The Upanishads give importance to the worship of one God. They discuss about how the atma can be made one with the cosmic soul or parmatma.

Page No 59:

Question E1:

What were the main teachings of the Buddha?

Answer:

The main teachings of Buddha were the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path.
The Four Noble Truths are as follows:

  1. The world is full of suffering.
  2. The main cause of suffering is desire.
  3. One must get rid of desire to end suffering.
  4. To end desire, one must follow the eightfold path.
The Noble Eightfold Path is as follows:
  1. Right thought
  2. Right belief
  3. Right speech
  4. Right action
  5. Right means of livelihood
  6. Right effort
  7. Right memory
  8. Right meditation

Page No 59:

Question E2:

What were the main teachings of Mahavira?

Answer:

Mahavira believed in leading a very simple life. He was against rituals and sacrifices. He believed that every being has a soul and therefore, one must follow the principle of non-violence.
According to Mahavira, the goal of life is to set the soul free and not be born again in this world. To achieve this, he proposed tri-ratna or the three jewels of life:

  1. Right belief
  2. Right knowledge
  3. Right action

Page No 59:

Question E3:

Why did Buddhism and Jainism become popular?

Answer:

Buddhism and Jainism both became very popular among the masses. This was due to the following three main reasons:

  1. These religions were easy to practise.
  2. They were preached in language spoken commonly by the masses.
  3. They did not believe in the caste system and preached the idea of social equality.

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Question E4:

What do the Upanishads contain?

Answer:

The Upanishads are philosophical books. They contain the teachings of many great religious teachers and saints. The Upanishads contain doctrines such as ideal human conduct, creation of world and man, the practices of ‘yoga’, ‘karma’, meditation and truths about life and death. The main philosophy of the Upanishads is Upasana (worship) and Bhakti (devotion).

Page No 59:

Question E5:

Men and women could join the sangha. What does it tell you about the status of women in the period under study?

Answer:

Under Buddhism, both men and women were allowed to join the Sangha. This equality of women with men in terms of ecclesiastical matters was a novel concept. This is so because of the prevalent orthodoxy and patriarchy in the Brahmanical religion. Women, especially of the upper classes like Brahmans and Kshatriyas, were forbidden from reading the sacred texts and participating in most religious conducts.

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Question E6:

Both Buddhism and Jainism were against the caste system. What do you think was wrong with the caste system?

Answer:

Both Buddhism and Jainism were opposed to the caste system, and this was one of the main reasons for their popularity. This opposition to the caste system was especially welcomed by the people of the lower classes, as over the years, the caste system had degraded into an inhumane and discriminatory practice. The people of the lower caste were treated equivalent to slaves of the higher castes. Debarred from the basic privileges to lead a life of respect, caste system was highly criticised.



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