Ratna Sagar History Solutions Solutions for Class 6 Social science Chapter 9 Life In Villages And Twons are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Life In Villages And Twons are extremely popular among Class 6 students for Social science Life In Villages And Twons Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Ratna Sagar History Solutions Book of Class 6 Social science Chapter 9 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s Ratna Sagar History Solutions Solutions. All Ratna Sagar History Solutions Solutions for class Class 6 Social science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 75:

Question A1:

Agricultural production increased due to an increased use of _____________ tools.
a. ceramic
b. iron
c. copper
d. bronze

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The enhanced use of iron in the field of agriculture increased the agricultural production. Iron axes were used to clear the forests. This enabled the expansion of the area under agriculture. Iron ploughshare was used to churn the fertile soil, hence increasing the productivity of the soil.

Page No 75:

Question A2:

The greater use of ______________ gave boost to trade.
a. textiles
b. beads
c. pottery
d. money

Answer:

 The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The use of money brought an end to the barter system. The end of barter system also ended the dependence on double coincidence of wants to initiate a transaction. Thus, now anyone who had a product in excess could sell it. Instead of goods, money became the token of exchange. This increased the possibility of easy buying and selling of products. With the greater use of money, trade flourished between different parts of the country and also between several countries such as India and the Roman Empire.

Page No 75:

Question A3:

Due to the growth of a large number of urban centres, this period is referred to as the age of ______________ urbanization.
a. first
b. third
c. second
d. fourth

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Urbanisation implies to the growth of big cities and towns with modern amenities. The first urbanisation in Indian history was the period of the Indus Valley civilisation. Later in the 6th century BCE, the emergence of several Mahajanapadas initiated the next phase of urbanisation or the age of the second urbanisation in the country. 

Page No 75:

Question A4:

Broach and Sopara are examples of ______________ centres.
a. trading
b. administrative
c. urban
d. religious

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Broach and Sopara were the two most important trading centres. Trading centres were usually the hub of traders and businessmen. Guilds too were mostly seen in these cities.



Page No 76:

Question A5:

As the second capital of the Kushanas, _______________ was a political and an administrative centre.
a. Vaishali
b. Tamralipti
c. Kausambi
d. Mathura

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Mathura was the second  capital of Kushanas. Being a capital city, Mathura was the political and administrative centre of the Kushanas.

Page No 76:

Question A6:

______________ imported wine and olive oil from Rome.
a. Kaveripattanam
b. Arikamedu
c. Hastinapur
d. Pataliputra

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Arikamedu, located near Puducherry, was an important coastal and port town in ancient India. As a coastal town, Arikamedu served as the focal point for trading with the Roman empire. It exported textiles, beads, precious stones, imported wine and olive oil from Rome.

Page No 76:

Question B:

1. Coin-minting was a popular occupation of this period.  ___________
2. The bead-making industry was concentrated in South India.  ___________ 
3. Arikamedu was excavated by Sir John Marshall.  ___________
4. Mathura was a Roman trading settlement.  ___________

Answer:

1. The given statement is true.

Explanation: Urbanisation has brought with it the opportunity for diversified options for occupation. Coin-making was one such occupation as money started to be readily used for economic transactions.

2.​The given statement is true.

Explanation: Every city was famous for one or other thing. Bead-making was an important industry that was concentrated in south Indian cities. Arikamedu, for instance, made impressive glass and stone beads.

3. â€‹The given statement is false.

Explanation: Arikamedu was excavated by British archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler in the 1940s.

4. â€‹The given statement is false.

Explanation: Arikamedu, a coastal town, was an important trading settlement. The town imported wine and olives from Rome.  On the other hand, Mathura was a religious centre famous for its art and craft. Mathura was also the adminitrative centre of the Kushanas.

 

Page No 76:

Question C:

Town Craft for which famous
1. Varanasi/Madurai a. making sculptures
2. Uraiyur b. manufacturing cloth
3. Mathura c. making beads
4. Arikamedu d. dyeing cloth

Answer:

S. No. Town Famous for
1. Madurai/Varanasi Manufacturing cloth
2. Uraiyur Dyeing cloth
3. Mathura Making sculptures
4.  Arikamedu Making beads                  
 
Explanation:
  1. Madurai/Varanasi------> Manufacturing cloth
Varanasi was the main centre for manufacturing the robes that Buddhist monks usually wear.  
  1. Uraiyur---------------> Dyeing cloth
The excavation of the large brick vats primarily used for dyeing clothes from Uraiyur suggest that this city was known for the art of cloth dyeing.
  1. Mathura----------> Making sculptures
Mathura had developed to become a great centre for Buddhist-sculpture making during the Kushana rule.
  1. Arikamedu------> Making beads
Several beads have been unearthed from Arikamedu. This suggests that this southern city could have been a centre of bead making.

Page No 76:

Question D1:

   shrenis? What was their function?

Answer:

The period of study is known for expansion of trading. The members of the society involved in trading activities often formed trading communities. Usually different trading groups had different communities. These groups or communities were also known as shrenis or guilds.  Their functions were as follows:

  • to provide training to craftsmen
  • to act as the bank to the traders
  • transport raw material to the craftsmen
  • distribute finished goods in the market

Page No 76:

Question D2:

Why is the period under study called the age of second urbanization?

Answer:

The age of Indus Valley civilisation is referred to as the first age of urbanisation in India. Followed by this age, the sixth century BCE again witnessed large scale agricultural production, enhancement of trade and commerce and emergence of cities. Thus, due to the growth of large scale urban centres and growth of economy, this period is also known as the age of second urbanisation.

Page No 76:

Question D3:

List some important towns of this period.

Answer:

 Some important towns of this period were as follows:

  • Mathura: Mathura was the second capital of the Kushanas. As a result, it emerged as a strong administrative centre. Due to the patronage of the Kushanas, art and culture also flourished in the town. The Mathura school of art is known for its artistic Buddhist sculptures. It was an important religious centre with several temples and monasteries.
  • Arikamedu: Arikamedu, located near Puducherry, was an important coastal and port town in ancient India. As a coastal town, Arikamedu served as the focal point for trading with the Roman empire. It exported textiles, beads, precious stones, imported wine and olive oil from Rome.

Page No 76:

Question E1:

Mention the factors that led to an increase in agriculture during this period.

Answer:

The enhanced use of iron in the field of agriculture increased the agricultural production. Iron axes were used to clear the forests. This enabled to expand the area under agriculture. Iron ploughshare was used to churn the fertile soil, hence increasing the productivity of the soil. Kings also helped to increase agricultural production by extending aid for building several irrigation structures such as tanks, canals and wells.

Page No 76:

Question E2:

Mathura was an important town because of many reasons. Explain.

Answer:

Mathura was one of the prominent urban centres during ancient times. The importance of this town can be understood with the following points:

  • It was a political and administrative centre of Kushanas.
  • It was a religious centre with large number of temples and monasteries.
  • It was strategically placed on trade route, which added to its wealth.
  • It was a centre for art and craft. This town was engaged in making world-class sculptures.

Page No 76:

Question E3:

Write a short note on increase in trade.

Answer:

The rapid use of iron tools in the 6th century BCE enabled the villages to produce more cereals than what could be consumed within the village itself. The surplus produce was hence left to be sold in the market. 
On the other hand, once cereals or food grains started to be produced in abundance, not all people required to stick to cultivation. They could now take up any other sort of activity to earn a living. Thus, there appeared a diversity of products on offer. This diversity and surplus production of goods enabled the establishment of trading links. Widespread contacts between villages and towns were now possible.
The wide use of money also facilitated the trading. Buying and selling of goods was no longer restricted within the boundaries of the country, international trading links too were established.

Page No 76:

Question E4:

How do we know that Arikamedu was a Roman trading settlement in India?

Answer:

 Arikamedu was a coastal town of Indian territory. It was famous for bead-making and ivory-crafting. It is well-known that Arikamedu was a Roman trading settlement in India and this is evident from the fact that large number of Roman pottery including jars, vases and gold coins are found after excavation. Along with this ruins of some warehouse, believed to have been a a store-house of imported Roman goods has also been unearthed.

Page No 76:

Question E5:

How did increased agricultural production benefit the kings of this period?

Answer:


The sixth century witnessed immense increase of agricultural production. The surplus produce could be traded to other kingdoms. This establishment of trade links enabled to foster better diplomatic relation. Firstly, kings benefitted from the cordial trading relations as it brought in wealth for the kingdom and establish peace with its neighbours too. Secondly, more production and trading also ensured more wealth in the hands of the people of the kingdom. Thus, the prosperity of the kingdom was an additional achievement of the ruler. 

Page No 76:

Question E6:

If the period under study is referred to as the age of second urbanization, which one do you think was the first?

Answer:

The age of first urbanisation is the period related to Harappan culture or the Indus Valley civilisation. It was the era of bronze age where iron was not known to people but still urban centres were developed. Town planning was a distinctive feature of that era. Art and craft was well-developed during the Harappan culture. This period was completely different from the pre-historic period settlement and that is why, this is often referred as the age of first urbanisation. The Indus Valley civilisation marked a shift of a tribal society to a civilised society. 



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