Ratna Sagar History Solutions Solutions for Class 6 Social science Chapter 4 The First Cities are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for The First Cities are extremely popular among Class 6 students for Social science The First Cities Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Ratna Sagar History Solutions Book of Class 6 Social science Chapter 4 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s Ratna Sagar History Solutions Solutions. All Ratna Sagar History Solutions Solutions for class Class 6 Social science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 36:

Question A1:

In the Indian subcontinent, the first cities emerged in the valley of
a. River Ganga
b. River Satluj
c. River Indus
d. River Chenab

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).
 

Explanation: Many cities were found around the River Indus. The Indus Valley civilisation is also known as the Harappan civilisation. â€‹It flourished roughly between 2,500 BC to 1,500 BC. 

Page No 36:

Question A2:

The civilization flourished between
a. 2500 – 1500 BC
b. 1500 – 1000 BC
c. 3500 – 1500 BC
d. 2000 BC – AD 2000

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The Indus Valley civilisation is one of the earliest known civilisations in the world. It is believed to have been contemporary to the Mesopotamian civilisation. It is also known as the Harappan civilisation. Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the most important sites.

Page No 36:

Question A3:

The _______________ cut each other at right angles.
a. drains
b. streets
c. houses
d. seals

Answer:

The correct answer is option â€‹(b). 

Explanation: The Indus Valley civilisation is well-known for its properly planned cities. The streets cut each other at right angles. These streets were 800 metres long and 10 metres wide.

Page No 36:

Question A4:

___________________ were used to construct buildings.
a. Mud and hay
b. Mortar and cement
c. Sun-dried bricks
d. Baked bricks

Answer:

The correct answer is option â€‹â€‹(d).
 

Explanation: The bricks used to build the houses in Indus Valley civilisation were baked. They were either sun-dried or kiln-fired mud bricks. They were used because they are strong and that is the reason they have stood up even after thousands of years.

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Question A5:

 In Mohenjo-daro, the largest building is the
a. granary
b. lower town
c. Great Bath
d. dockyard

Answer:

The correct answer is option â€‹â€‹(a).
 

Explanation: The citadel mound in Mohenjodaro has ruins of many buildings. The granary is the largest building of this city. It is a huge building with solid brick foundations and proper sockets for the doorways.

Page No 36:

Question A6:

Most of the seals were made of
a. bitumen
b. terracotta
c. tar
d. stone

Answer:

The correct answer is option â€‹â€‹â€‹(b).

Explanation: The seals that were discovered at Harappa were made of terracotta, i.e. baked clay. They were either square or rectangular in shape with animal pictures on them.

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Question A7:

Trading links with _______________ have been proved by the discovery of mesopotamian seals in many Harappan cities.
a. Greece
b. China
c. Mesopotamia
d. Egypt

Answer:

The correct answer is option â€‹â€‹â€‹(c).
 

Explanation: The discovery of Mesopotamian seals in Harappan cities have proved the trade relations of the city with Mesopotamia.​ Surplus goods were exported by the Harappans in exchange with the goods that were in short supply. It is presumed that trade was carried out from Lothal, a site in present day Gujarat where a dockyard was discovered.

Page No 36:

Question A8:

The script of the Harappans was
a. Roman
b. Brahmi
c. Latin
d. pictographic

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).
 

Explanation: In the sites of Indus Valley civilisation, many seals were found with the Harappan script engraved on them. The script has not been deciphered yet but it was pictographic, which means that pictures like signs representing objects, words and ideas were engraved on them.

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Question B:

1. Archaeological sources are the main source for studying the Harappan Civilization. ____________
2. Most Indus cities were well planned. ____________
3. The Great Bath lies on the citadel. ____________
4. The Harappan script has been deciphered. ____________
5. Dholavira lies in the Khadir Island, in the Rann of Kutch. ____________

Answer:

1. The given statement is true.
 

Explanation: The Harappan or the Indus Valley civilisation was buried under the ground with no other evidence except for the archaeological sources that were found after the excavation of different sites. This civilisation came to an abrupt end almost 3,500 years ago.

2. The given statement is true.
 
Explanation: The Indus Valley civilisation cities were well-planned. The excavation of the sites prove that the houses, streets, drainage system and sanitation were brilliantly organised.

3. The given statement is true.
 
Explanation: The cities of the Indus Valley civilisation were divided into two parts, i.e. the citadel and the lower town. The Granary and the Great Bath were in the citadel of Mohenjodaro. The Great Bath is one of the most impressive structure of Mohenjodaro.

4. The given statement is false.

Explanation: The script of the Harappan civilisation was pictographic. The seals had engravings of animal pictures, words and ideas. The script has not been deciphered yet.

5. The given statement is true.

Explanation: Dholavira is a Harappan city in Gujarat. It lies in the Rann of Kutch. It is also known as Kotada.



Page No 37:

Question C:

1. Great Bath a. Lothal
2. Signboard b. Gola Dhoro
3. Shell bangles c. Mohenjo-daro
4. Gain threshing brick platforms d. Dholavira
5. Dockyard e. Harappa

Answer:

The correct match is given below:
 

1. Great Bath c. Mohenjodaro
2. Signboard d. Dholavira
3. Shell bangles b. Gola Dhoro
4. Grain threshing brick platforms e. Harappa
5. Dockyard a. Lothal 

Explanation:
 
1. Great Bath ---------> Mohenjodaro

The Great Bath is considered as one of the most impressive structure of Mohenjodaro. It is a rectangular structure made of bricks and bitumen or tar has been used to water tighten it. It resembles a swimming pool and was perhaps used for bathing on special occasions.

2. Signboard--------> Dholavira

Dholavira is located in the Khadir Island, in the Rann of Kutch. The signboards found in Dholavira are suspected to be the oldest in the world. It contains ten large signs in the Harappan script.

3. Shell bangles----------> Gola Dhoro

Gola Dhoro is a very recent excavation site in the Kutch region. Many articles excavated here suggest that items of shell and copper were produced here. Among these articles were many finished and unfinished shell bangles.

4. Grain threshing brick platforms----------> Harappa

In Harappa, granaries were made to store the surplus grains. A number of circular brick platforms were found near these granaries. These platforms were used for threshing the grains.

5. Dockyard-------->Lothal

It is suspected that the oversea trade was carried out from Lothal. A dockyard has been found which suggests that export and import across the sea happened from this place. The presence of Mesopotamian seals in Harappan cities and Harappan seals in Mesopotamian cities support this fact.

Page No 37:

Question D1:

What is the Indus Valley Civilization also known as? Why?

Answer:

The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as Harappan Civilisation. This is because of the following reasons:

1. Harappa was the first city to be excavated in the process of discovery of the civilisation.
2. The sites excavated later had the similar pattern of living as that of Harappa.

Page No 37:

Question D2:

How do we know that most Indus cities were 'very well planned'?

Answer:

Most of the Indus cities were well-planned and this is evident from the excellent town planning, drainage system and sanitation. The streets cut each other at right angles. They were 800 metres long and 10 metres wide. The streets had houses on both sides in a planned manner. Along with this, the drainage system was also properly planned. The floors of the bathrooms were sloped. The bathrooms and kitchens of every house had drains, which were connected to the street drains. The street drain was covered and ran along the streets.

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Question D3:

How was Dholavira different from most Indus cities?

Answer:

Most cities of the Indus Valley civilisation were divided into two parts, i.e. the citadel and the lower town. Dholavira was different from most Indus cities as it was divided into three parts, i.e. the citadel, a middle town and a lower town. These parts were enclosed by stone walls. 

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Question D4:

What may have happened for the civilization to decline?

Answer:

The Indus Valley civilisation declined probably because of the following reasons:

1. The fertile land was encroached upon by the neighbouring desert, making it unfit for cultivation.
2. Floods in the Indus river might have destroyed the area.
3. The Aryan invasion resulted into the destruction of native people.
4. Earthquakes and other epidemics could have been the cause for the abrupt end of the civilisation.

Page No 37:

Question E1:

Describe the extent of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Answer:

The Indus Valley civilisation extended to area around the river Indus. It also spread to large parts of Pakistan and the present day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. Several sites were excavated in these places that give evidence of existence of the civilisation.

Page No 37:

Question E2:

Into how many parts were most Indus cities divided? Describe any one part.

Answer:

Most of the cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro were divided into two parts. The part that was built on a raised height is called the citadel or 'acropolis'. The part with a low height but a larger area is called the lower town.

The citadel was built on a raised ground and had high walls made of bricks. These walls provided protection during floods. The citadel consisted of public buildings such as the Great Bath and the Granary in Mohenjo-daro and other religious structures. The residents of this area were probably the ruler or the members of ruling class, the merchants and the priests.

Page No 37:

Question E3:

Write a short note on the Great Bath.

Answer:

The Great Bath was the most impressive building structure found in the citadel of Mohenjodaro. It is rectangular in shape just like a swimming pool. It was made of baked bricks. A layer of tar and bitumen was used to make it water tight. There are two flights of steps on either side of the Great Bath. Changing rooms are also present on all sides of the Bath. The water for bathing was probably drawn from wells that was drained out through a proper drainage system. It was used only on special occasions.

Page No 37:

Question E4:

What do you know about the drainage system of the Indus Valley civilisation?

Answer:

The cities of the Indus Valley civilisation were well-planned. The drainage system was no exception. The bathrooms of every house had sloped floors, which were connected to the main street drain. The kitchen in the cities and the Great Bath of Mohenjodaro also had drains connecting to the main street drain. These covered drains were made of bricks that were cleaned regularly. The main street drain ran along the sides of the main street.

Page No 37:

Question E5:

What occupations and crafts did the Harappans practise?

Answer:

The people of Harappan civilisation followed several occupations based on their skills. Some of the examples are weaving, pottery, jewellery making, stone cutting, metal work, tool making, seal making, boat making, masonry, trading and farming.

The crafts made by the people of Harappan civilisation were made of stone, metal and shell. They were made either at homes or at workshops. The crafts included amulets, beads, weights and ornaments like necklaces, bracelets, rings, earrings and bangles. Marbles, rattles, dolls, bird-shaped whistles and terra cotta toys were also excavated from the sites.

Page No 37:

Question E6:

Archaeological sources are the main sources for studying the Harappan Civilization. Why?

Answer:

Archaeological sources are the main sources for studying the Harappan civilisation. The reason for the same is that the civilisation flourished between 2,500 BC and 1,500 BC. It began to abruptly end about 3,500 years ago. It got buried under the ground and got lost. Therefore, the sources found during the excavation of these sites in the 20th century are the only source for studying this civilisation.

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Question E7:

The Harappans can be called great architects and engineers. Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your argument.

Answer:

Harappa was the earliest site to be excavated. The excavations of the site prove that they were extremely well-planned. The other cities show similar patterns of living and architecture. The cities were very planned and the streets cut each other at right angles. The kitchens and bathrooms had excellent drainage system. Baked bricks were used for making a strong and lasting construction. The Great Bath in Mohenjodaro is the most impressive structure. That is why the Harappans can be called great architects and engineers.



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