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Page No 101:

Question A.1:

What was the result of foreign invasions during the time of later Mughals?

Answer:

The foreign invasions by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali weakened the Mughal Empire. In the end, it broke the Mughal Empire. With the end of the Mughals,  the Marathas, governors of Awadh, Bengal and Rohillas became independent.

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Question A.2:

What do you understand by the Jagirdari crisis?

Answer:

Under the rule of Aurangzeb, the jagirdari system started crumbling. The problem was that the number of mansabdars who were allotted jagirs were more and the land available to them was very less. This was known as the jagirdari crisis and one of the ill effects of this was the jagirdars started extracting more revenues from the peasants.

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Question A.3:

What is meant by the term Khalsa?

Answer:

The term 'Khalsa' implies the 'army of the pure'. It was started as a retaliation for the economic and political repression in Punjab towards the end of Aurangzeb's rule. It was founded by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth guru of the Sikhs.

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Question A.4:

Define chauth and sardeshmukhi.

Answer:

Chauth and sardeshmukhi were the sources of income for the Marathas under the rule of Shivaji. Chauth was one-fourth of the assessed revenue of the place, whereas sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10 percent demanded from areas outside the Maratha kingdom. These taxes were levied on those people who lived outside the Maratha kingdom. The taxes were seen as protection money against Maratha raids.

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Question A.5:

What were the reforms introduced by the Nizam of Hyderabad?

Answer:

The Nizam introduced various reforms in Hyderabad that included establishing peace and security by suppressing the nobles, making efforts to reduce thefts and robberies, stopping the raid of the Marathas and reviving agriculture and other industries by giving incentives to farmers and craftsmen.

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Question B.1:

How did the formation of Khalsa help in the growth of Sikhs as a major regional power?

Answer:

Guru Gobind Singh wanted to transform the Sikh community into a powerful warrior community that could protect itself from the hostile and powerful empire in rule. Some of the important phases after the rise of the Khalsa are as follows:

(1) The Khalsa rose as an answer to the economic and political repression of Aurangzeb's rule. It took advantage of the political instability created by the invasion of the Persian and Afghan invaders by expanding its territorial control.

(2) After the death of Guru Gobind Singh, the Khalsa rose as a revolt against the Mughals under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. The sovereign rule of the Sikhs was established and territories were consolidated.

(3) The misls were united under the leadership of Raja Ranjit Singh, after which the Khalsa grew as a major regional power.
 

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Question B.2:

Explain briefly the Maratha administration?

Answer:

The Maratha emerged as an important kingdom under the rule of Shivaji in the mid-17th century. The Marathas were successful because of their ability to mobilise the peasants. The Maratha polity was an enlightened centralised autocratic monarchy. Some of the features of the Maratha administration are as follows:

(1) King as the head: The king was the in charge of all affairs. To assist him, there was a council of state ministers known as ashtapradhan. Later, the Peshwas became the civil and military heads.

(2) Division of the territory: For ease of administration, the territory was divided into three provinces, with each province headed by a viceroy. The provinces were subdivided into prants, each of which was further divided into parganas and tarafs. The lowest unit was the village headed by a headman called patel.

(3) Revenue collection: Revenue was assessed after a thorough survey of the lands. It was collected from peasants, either in cash or in kind. Further, chauth and sardeshmukhi were collected in the form of protection money from areas outside the Maratha kingdom.

The Marathas ruled for a long time, but the power gradually weakened over the time because of internal strife between different Maratha chiefs.

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Question B.3:

What are the common features of the three regional states of Bengal, Awadh and Hyderabad?

Answer:

The regional states of Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad had started emerging under the Mughal rule. Autonomy was gradually assumed by them over a period of time. The common features of these states are as follows:

(1) Autonomy: Even under the Mughal rule, these states were autonomous to a certain extent.

(2) Reorganisation of the administrative system: The size of jagirs was either reduced or controlled. A check was kept on the jagirdars to prevent cheating.

(3) Establishment of law and order: Peace was established by keeping a firm check on robberies. Diligent efforts were made to suppress the rebellious zamindars.

(4) Expansion of trade and commerce: Agriculture and trade were revived by providing security and incentives to the farmers and the traders. Further, both Muslims and Hindus were treated equally in all aspects, which helped in boosting the trade.

Page No 101:

Question C.1:

The _________ and ________ took advantage of the weakening Mughal empire.

Answer:

The British and the French took advantage of the weakening the Mughal Empire.

Explanation: The British and the French had come to India as traders. But when the Mughal Empire started weakening, they gradually took over the entire India to control the market.

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Question C.2:

__________ established his kingdom at Lahore in 1799.

Answer:

Ranjit Singh established his kingdom in Lahore in 1799.

Explanation: Ranjit Singh united the conglomerate of 12 kin groups known as misls to form one of the most formidable empire of that period.

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Question C.3:

Battle of Panipat was fought between ________ and __________.

Answer:

The Third Battle of Panipat was fought between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali.
 

Explanation: In the Third Battle of Panipat, the Marathas were badly defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali. It led to the weakening of the main authority in Poona and the gradual establishment of the Maratha succession states.

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Question C.4:

The village headman under the Marathas was known as ________.

Answer:

The village headman under the Marathas was known as the patel.
 

Explanation: Shivaji divided his territory into three provinces, each under a viceroy. The provinces were subdivided into prants, each of which was further divided into parganas and tarafs. The lowest unit was the village headed by a headman or patel.

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Question C.5:

The Nawabi of Awadh was founded by ___________.

Answer:

The Nawabi of Awadh was founded by Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk.

​Explanation: Saadat Khan was appointed as the governor of the Awadh province by Emperor Muhammad Shah. He later went on to found the autonomous state of Awadh.

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Question D:

On a political map of India shade the following places.

Regional states of Jats, Sikhs, Marathas, Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad.

Answer:



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