1. When some social difference overlaps with other difference.
2. Situations of this kind produce social divisions, when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
3. Example-a)difference between Black & White in the US becomes a social division because they tend to be poor & landless, and often face injustice & discrimination.
b) In our country Dalits tend to be poor & landless and often face injustice & discrimination.
4. Overlapping differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.
1.If social differences cross-cut one another, it is difficult to pit group of people against the other.
2. It means that group that share a common interest on the issue are likely to be on different sides on a different issue.
3. Example -Northern Ireland & Netherlands both are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics & Protestants. In Northern Ireland class & religion overlap each other, if catholic one tend to be poor & have suffered discrimination where as in Netherland, class & religion tend to cross-cut each other and both are equally likely to be rich or poor. It means they have conflict in Northern Ireland and it is not so in Netherlands.
4. Cross-cut social differences are easier to accommodate.