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Information about the history and various organs of the United Nations

Asked by Raima Sinha(student) , on 31/5/12


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History and Organs of UN

 

The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in theDeclaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies.

In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.

The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.

In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.

Organs :

General Assembly

Security Council

Economic and Social Council

Trusteeship Council

International Court of Justice

Secretariat

Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Posted by A Benedict(student)on 31/5/12

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With  the  attack  of  Germany  on  Poland  on  September  1,  1939,  the  Second  World  War  broke  out.  It  lasted  nearly  six  years  and  came  to  an  end  in  Europe  with  the  unconditional  surrender  of  Japan  on  August  14,  1945.  The  war  was  fought  between  the  allied  powers,  ie,  the  United  Kingdom,  the  USA,  the  USSR,  France  and  a  good  number  of  other  countries  on  one  side  and  the  Axis  Powers,  ie,  Germany,  Italy,  and  Japan  on  the  otherside.  It  was  a  total  war  and  it  gradually  engulfed  the  whole  world.  It  stirred  the  conscience  of  mankind  and  the  cry  went  forth  from  the  hearts  of  the  suffering  humanity. - 'Never  again ' - There  grew  up  a  deep  and  universal  feeling  that  the  estableshment  of  a  naw  internal  organisation  was  essential  to  save  the  world  from  the  scourage  of  war  and  that  feelings  gave  shape  to  THE  INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  NATIONS.  The  failure  of  the  League  of  Nations  to  prevent  war  and  to  promote  peace  strengthened  the  need  for  a  collective  security  system.  During  the  world  war,  many  meetings  conferences,  declarations  were  held,  which  laid  down  the  basic  principles  of  the  U.N.  U.N.  is  based  on  the  principle  of   free  co - operation  of  its  members.  the  primary  objective  of  the  UN  is  maintenance  of  peace  and  security  in  the  world.  On  26th  June  1945,  51  nations  signed  the  charter  of  the  United  Nations  at  San  Francisco.  The  U.N.  charter  consists  of  111  articles.


Organs  of  the  U.N.

The  U.N  charter  provided  for  six  organs  of  the  U.N.  It  is  through  these  organs  that  its  work  is  carried  out  for  the  fulfilment  of  the  purposes  of  the  U.N.  The  principal  organs  of  the  U.N  are  :-

1]  The  General  Assembly

2]  The  Security  Council

3]  The  Economic  and  Social  Council.

4]  The  Trsuteeship  Council

5]  The  International  Court  of  Justice.

6]  The  Secretariat.


Intergovernmental  Agencies 

Specialised  Agencies  are  organised  by  intergovernmental  agreements  for  the  promotion  of  economic,  social,  cultural,  educational,  health  and  humanitarian  conditions.  The  activities  of  these  agencies  are  coordinated  by  the  Economic  and  Social  Council.  There  are  at  present  18  independent  specialised  agencies  functioning  under  the  United  Nations.  They  are  :-

1]  International  Telecommunication  Union  [ ITU ].

2]  World  Meteorological  Organisation.

3]  Universal  Postal  Union  [ UPU ].

4]  International  Labour  Organisation  [ ILO ].

5]  International  Civil  Aviation  [ ICA ].

6]  Food  and  Agricultural  Organisation  [ FAO ].

7]  International  Monetary  Fund  [ IMF ].

8]  United  Nation 's  Educational,  Scientific,  Cultural  organisation  [ UNESCO ].

9]  World  Health  Organisation  [ WHO ].

10]  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and  Development  [ IBRD ].

11]  International  Maritime  Organisation  [ IMO ].

12]  International  Finance  Corporation  [ IFC ].

13.  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  [ IAEA ]

14]  International  Development  Association  [ IDA ].

15]  World  Intellectual  Property  Organisation  [ WIPO].

16]  International  Fund  for  Agricultural  Development  [ IFAD ]

17]  United  Nations  Industrial  Development  Organisation  [ UNIDO ]

18]  World  Trade  Organisation  [ WTO].

Posted by Krish Itz Me(student)on 31/5/12

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