A Farm in India
There is a small village Adilabad in Ghazipur district of
Uttar Pradesh. Munna Lal is a small farmer in this village
who has farmland of about 1.5 hectares. His house is in
the main village. He purchases high yielding varieties of
seeds from the market every alternate year. The
land is fertile and he grows atleast two crops
in a year which are normally wheat or rice and
pulses. The farmer takes advice of his friends
and elders as well as government agricultural
officers regarding farming practices. He takes
a tractor on rent for ploughing his field, though
some of his friends still use traditional method
of using bullocks for ploughing. There is a
tubewell in the nearby field which he takes on
rent to irrigate his field.
Munna Lal also has two buffaloes and few hens. He
sells milk in the cooperative store located in the nearby
town. He is a member of the co-operative society which
also advises him on the type of fodder for his animals,
safety measures to protect the health of the livestock
and artificial insemination.
All the members of the family help him
in various farm activities. Sometimes, he
takes credit from a bank or the agricultural
co-operative society to buy HYV seeds and
He sells his produce in the mandi located
in the nearby town. Since majority of the
farmers do not have lack storage facilities,
they are forced to sell the produce even
when the market is not favourable to them.
In recent years, the government has taken
some steps to develop storage facilites.
A Farm in the USA
The average size of a farm in the USA is much
larger than that of an Indian farm. A typical
farm size in the USA is about 250 hectares.
The farmer generally resides in the farm.
Some of the major crops grown are corn,
soyabean, wheat, cotton and sugarbeet.
Joe Horan, a farmer in the Midwest USA, in
Iowa State owns about 300 hectares of land.
He grows corn on his field after making sure
that soil and water resources meet the needs
of this crop. Adequate measures are taken to control
pests that can damage the crop. From time to time
he sends the soil samples to a soil testing laboratory
to check whether the
nutrients are sufficient or
not. The results help Joe
Horan to plan a scientific
fertiliser programme. His
computer is linked to the
satellite which gives him
a precise picture of his
field. This helps him to
Fig 4.17: Spray of Pesticides use chemical fertilisers
Fig 4.16: A Farm in the USA
Fig 4.15: An Agricultural Field in India
48 resources And development
1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is agriculture?
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their
2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables (b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
(a) tea (b) cotton (c) jute
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
(a) Brazil (b) India (c) Russia
3. Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
4. Distinguish between the followings.
(i) Primary activites and tertiary activities
(ii) Subsistence farming and intenstive farming.
(i) Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses
available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type
of soil they grow.
(ii) Find out the difference between the life style of farmers in the USA and
India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers
and the internet.
Fig 4.18: Mechanised Harvesting in the USA
and pesticides wherever they are required.
He uses tractors, seed drills, leveller, combined harvester and thresher to perform
various agricultural operations. A grains are
stored in the automated grain storage or
despatched to market agencies. The farmer
in USA works like a businessman and not
like a peasant farmer.