Subject: Biology, asked on 21/7/20

Subject: Biology, asked on 7/7/20

Subject: Biology, asked on 14/6/20

Identify and list any ten (10) errors, i.e. wrong statements, wrong words, or wrong use of words
in the text below, that consists of 16 sentences in total: [10 marks]
(1) Climate change is a natural process and the Earth has experienced changing climatic periods
since its formation. (2) Climate is determined mainly by two factors, temperature and humidity,
both of which are interrelated. (3) Weather is described by mainly three factors: temperature
precipitation and wind. (4) What determines the climate on Earth is basically related to the
incoming radiation from the Sun and the Moon. (5) As such the Earth is in thermodynamic sense
a ?closed system?, receiving energy from the Sun, and emitting it back again. (6) Global warming
is dependent on the incoming rate of solar radiation as against the absorption of heat inside the
Earth. (7) As the solar rays hit the Earth, these are either: a) reflected; or b) transmitted; or c)
absorbed by the cloud systems in the atmosphere. (8) The Earth?s surface and plants cannot
reflect the sun rays, only the cloud systems can do that. (9) The ultraviolet solar radiation easily
penetrates the cloud system, but the re-radiated infrared waves in the form of heat are trapped for
a variable time in the cloud systems. (10) Greenhouse gases contribute to the warming effect of
the cloud systems in the atmosphere. (11) The five most important greenhouse gases in terms of
quantity are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitroxides (NOx) and
Chloro-Fluor-Carbonates (CFC). (12) Water vapour (H2O) itself is not a greenhouse gas, but
amplifies the greenhouse effect of the five above gases. (13) The Earth?s ozone (O3) layer also
acts as a factor in global warming by preventing heat from escaping the atmosphere. (14) But the
main purpose of the ozone layer is to absorb dangerous UV-rays. (15) Oxygen (O2) constitutes c.
78% of the atmosphere and free nitrogen (N2) about 21%, with CO2 almost 1%. (16) The major
implications of climate change are increased sea water levels, erratic precipitation patterns, and
increased temperature at the polar caps, but with least effects at the Equator.

Subject: Biology, asked on 7/4/20

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