1. what is law of mass action?

2.Explain law of chemical equilibrium and derive it.

1)Law of Mass action :  This law was given by Guldberg and Waage in 1864. It states that- The rate of reaction is proportional to the product of the active masses of the reactants , each raised to the power to its stoichiometric coefficient as represented by the balanced reaction.
2)Law of chemical equilibrium : It states that- The product of the molar concentration of the products, each raised to the power equal to its stoichiometric coefficient divided by the product of the molar concentrations of the reactants , each raised to the power equal to its stoichiometric coefficient is constant at constant temperature and is called  Equilibrium constant.
DERIVATION:
consider the general reversible reaction:
A + B  C + D
At equilibrium , suppose  the active masses of A, B, C, and D are represented as [A], [B], [C] and [D].
 Applying the law of mass action-
Rate at which A and B react together , that is , Rate of forward reaction α [A][B]
= Kf [A][B]
where  Kf is proportionality constant is called as velocity constant for forward reaction.
Similarly, rate at which C and D react together ,that is, Rate of the backward reaction
= Kb[C][D]
where Kb represents the velocity constant for the backward reaction
At equilibrium,
Rate of forward reaction=  Rate of the backward reaction
Kf[A][B]= Kb[C][D]
KfKb= [C][D][A][B]
K[C][D][A][B]
Where K is Equilibrium Constant
 

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REFER NCERT BOOK PG NUMBER 191 TO 194

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