30.Explain the concept of ?casualization of workforce?. Advance any two reasons for this
phenomenon that has been witnessed in India and how does it make the workers highly

Dear student,
     Casualisation of workforce simply means a process of changing ,moving or shifting from regular salaried employment to casual work unlike a regular employment. It can be seen as a trend in an economy where workers tend to work more in informal sector than in formal sector.It results in increase of GDP but a decrease in employment rate. So basically casualisation means individuals work and make money through self employment,contract works,casual wage works etc..instead of working in a regular job. Two reasons for this phenomenon can be stated as follows:
1. Lack of oppurtunities- Due to lack of employment oppurtunities in formal sectors people tend to start working as casual workers.
2. Lack of fund- Lack of fund or stringent budgetary constraints forces organisation to hire daily wage workers or contract employees than hiring regular employees.
Though casualisation of work turns to be a source of earning in absence of regular employment it make the workers vulnerable in various ways such as:
1. Absence of paid leaves -In regular employment, workers are provided with paid leaves such as sick leaves, maternity leave etc...
  which are absent on casual employment.
2.Absence of provident fund- In casual employment there will be no provident fund provided by the organisation unlike in a regular employment.
3. Less secured- Casual wage work or contract work are less secure compared to regular employment as there is no guarantee on employment .
4. Absence of regular earnings- In casual employment regular earnings cannot be guaranteed unlike regular salaried employment.


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