7. Even though the majority of Americans would find it hard to imagine what life could be without a car, some have begun to realise that the automobile is a mixed blessing. Traffic accidents are increasing steadily and large cities are plagued by traffic congestion. Worst of all, perhaps, is the air pollution caused by the internal combustion engine. Every car engine burns hundreds of gallons of fuel each year and pumps hundreds pounds of carbon monoxide and other gases into the air. These gases are one source of the smog that hangs over large cities. Some of these gases are poisonous to health, especially for someone with a weak heart or a respiratory disease.
8. One answer to the problem of air pollution is to build a car that does not pollute. That's what several major automobile manufacturers are trying to do. But building a clean car is easier said than done.So far progress has been slow. Another solution is to eliminate car fumes altogether by getting rid of the internal combustion engine. Inventors are now working on turbine powered cars, as well as on cars powered by steam and electricity. But most of us won't be driving cars run on batteries or boiling water for a while yet. Many auto-makers believe that it will take years to develop practical models that are powered by electricity or steam.
9. To rid the world of pollution - pollution caused not just by cars, but by all of modern industrial life - many people believe we must make some fundamental changes in the way many of us live. Americans may, for example, have to cut down on the number of privately owned cars and depend more on public mass transit systems. Certainly the extensive use of new transit systems could cut down ion traffic congestion and air pollution. But these changes sometimes clash head on with other urgent problems. For example, if a factory closes down because it cannot meet government pollution standards, a large number of workers suddenly find themselves without jobs. Questioning the quality of the air they breathe become less important than worrying about the next pay check, Drastic action must be taken if we are to reduce traffic accidents, traffic congestion and air pollution. While wheels have brought better and more convenient transportation, they have also brought new and unforeseen problems. Progress, it turns out, has more than one face.
A. Choose the most appropriate option: (1 x 4 = 4)
(a) Early automobiles were prohibited as they ......................... .
(i) were very noisy (ii) scared horses
(iii) both (i) and (ii) (iv) none of the above
(b) Cars emit obnoxious forms which are detrimental to .................... .
(i) a person with a weak heart
(ii) an individual whose respiratory system is weak
(iii) both (i) and (ii)
(iv) none of the above
(c) The basis of America's success and fast life is ............... .
(i) automobile industry (ii) export policies
(iii) import policies (iv) finance policies
(d) Drastic action needs to be taken to reduce
(i) air pollution (ii) traffic accidents
(iii) traffic congestion (iv) all of the above
B. Answer the following questions briefly: (1 x 6 = 6)
(a) How does standardisation of parts help make mass production possible?
(b) How does the assembly line help make mass production possible?
(c) Why do some Americans call the automobile a mixed blessing? (Two points)
(d) What suggestions are offered in the piece for getting rid of pollution?
(e) What another idea was developed by Henry Ford?
(f) What was made possible by the assembly line with increased production?