Describe in brief the distinctive features of hominids

Dear student,
The two main characteristics of hominids are bipedalism and big brains. The brain case, or the skull, has increased in size over time to allow for the enlargement of the brain. It has also changed shape. The skull now has more forehead and a rounder shape. There is less separation between the brain and the face. The face has gotten flatter, the nose is less of a snout and humans have small teeth and jaws in comparison to the modern apes. Big brains allow for more learned behavior, such as using tools.
All hominids are able to walk upright. The human anatomy has had to adjust in a variety of different ways to accommodate walking up-right. The foramen magnum, which attaches the spinal cord to the brain, is at the bottom of the skull, rather than at the back. This allows hominids to see straight ahead.
The vertebrae of hominids vary in size from the top of the spine to the bottom. They are smaller at the top and larger at the bottom. The spine of hominids also curves, which helps to support the weight of the body, in an upright position.
The femur, which is the thigh bone in hominids, is angled towards the knee, which stabilizes the body in relation to gravity. Bipedalism can make it hard to balance and humans often fall, particularly when they're elderly. It can also cause back pain.

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