describe the life of albert einstein before getting permanent job
Albert Einstein was born inUlm, in theKingdom of Württembergin theGerman Empireon 14March 1879.His father wasHermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother wasPauline Einstein (née Koch). In 1880, the family moved toMunich, where his father and his uncle foundedElektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based ondirect current.
The Einsteins were non-observantJews. Albert attended aCatholic elementary schoolfrom the age of five for three years. At the age of eight, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium (now known as the Albert Einstein Gymnasium) where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left Germany seven years later.Contrary to popular suggestions that he had struggled with early speech difficulties, the Albert Einstein Archives indicate he excelled at the first school that he attended.He was right-handed;there appears to be no evidence for the widespread popular beliefthat he was left-handed.
His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space".As he grew, Einstein built models and mechanical devices for fun and began to show a talent for mathematics.When Einstein was ten years old, Max Talmud (later changed toMax Talmey), a poor Jewish medical student fromPoland, was introduced to the Einstein family by his brother. During weekly visits over the next five years, he gave the boy popular books on science, mathematical texts and philosophical writings. These included Immanuel Kant'sCritique of Pure Reason, andEuclid's Elements(which Einstein called the "holy little geometry book").[fn 1]
In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost theWar of Currentstoalternating current(AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first toMilanand then, a few months later, toPavia. When the family moved to Pavia, Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursueelectrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strictrote learning. At the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note.It was during his time in Italy that he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of theEtherin a Magnetic Field."
In 1895, at the age of sixteen, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for theSwiss Federal PolytechnicinZurich(later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH). He failed to reach the required standard in several subjects, mainly in French, but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics.On the advice of the Principal of the Polytechnic, he attended the Aargau Cantonal School inAarau, Switzerland, in 189596 to complete his secondary schooling. While lodging with the family of ProfessorJost Winteler, he fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. (Albert's sisterMajalater married Wintelers' son Paul.)In January 1896, with his father's approval, he renounced hiscitizenship in the German Kingdom of Württembergto avoidmilitary service.In September 1896, he passed the SwissMaturawith mostly good grades, including a top grade of 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale of 1-6,and, though only seventeen, enrolled in the four-year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Zurich Polytechnic. Marie Winteler moved toOlsberg, Switzerlandfor a teaching post.
Einstein's future wife,Mileva MariÄ, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. Over the next few years, Einstein and MariÄ's friendship developed into romance, and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest. In 1900, Einstein was awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma, but MariÄ failed the examination with a poor grade in the mathematics component, theory of functions.There have been claims that MariÄ collaborated with Einstein on his celebrated 1905 papers,but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions.