Give reasons for the following :

i) Metals have tendency to form cations.

ii) Non - metals have a tendency to gain electrons.

1. Because, metals are electropositive in nature, i.e. they have less than four electrons in their outermost valence orbital, so that they can loose them to get the stable octet configuration like the near most noble gas atom.

Hence, they loose their electrons to get stable noble gas like configuration and so the no. of protons increases and they get a positive charge and called as the cations (+ve ions).

2. Non- metals are electronegative in nature, i.e. the outermost shell have more than four electrons so that, they could receive electrons to complete their octets and get a stable noble gas like configuration. 

So, they gain the electrons from other metals.

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1) Forming cations are typical behavior for many metal substances. Metals substances are attracted to the cathode. As they move towards cathode there are great chance that electron will be lost. As fewer numbers of valence electrons are there this shows that metals have greater tendency for the metals substance to lose an electron as amount of ionization energy in metal substances is much lower than the force required for electron removal.

2) The non-metals all have fairly high ionization energies, it means it is relatively difficult to remove their valence electrons. The non-metals also have high electron affinities, so they tend to attract electrons to themselves. This shows that non-metals have tendency to gain electrons.

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metals have 1,2 or 3

electrons in last shell

so it is easier for them to lose 1,2or3

electrons rather than to gain ,45,6or7electrons

so they form cations

nonmetals have 4,5,6 or 7

electrons in last shell

so it is easier for them to gain 1,2or3

electrons rather than to lose ,45,6or7electrons

so they form anion

  • -1

metals have are elctron donors as they have valency 1,2 ,3 so they give elctrons to get its commplete ooctet so if a atom gives elctrons so it is a cation

non metals have the valencies 5,6,7, so they need to gain electrons to get into stable state

so they gain elctrons

hope this helps u

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