how does the deficiency of nutrients affect the growth of the plants

All plants require adequate amount of nutrients for their growth and development. Nutrients such as Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium represent the three most important nutrients plants get from the soil along with other micronutrients. When plants do not get enough of these nutrients, plants start showing deficiency symptoms such as stunted growth and poor colour.
 For example: Plants need nitrogen to form amino acids so that they can perform enzymatic reactions and produce the chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis. Deficiency of nitrogen cause plants to have yellow or light-green leaves, stunted growth reduced flowering and early maturity. Phosphorus helps the plants to store energy, and develop roots, seeds and flowers. Deficiency of phosphorous leads to reduced cell division, causing stunted growth, delayed maturity, reduced seed or fruit development and leaf discoloration. Deficiency of potassium causes yellow discoloration of the leaf, slow growth, smaller plants, weak stems, and smaller fruits.

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