(i) give any two reasons for infertility among young couples?

(ii) test tube baby programme is a boon to such couples, explain the steps followed in the procedure.


  1. Infertility refers to the inability of a couple to produce children in spite of unprotected sexual cohabitation.  The reasons of infertility could be congenital disease, physical problems, immunological reactions and psychological reactions. Common symptoms among couples are, low sperm count in males, uterus and fallopian tube problems, menstrual irregularity in females.
  2. Test tube baby method: Ova from the donor female or wife and the sperm from the donor male or husband are allowed to fuse under proper simulated condition in the laboratory as that of the body. It is called as IVF or invitro fertilization. (In vitro means outside the body).


The formed zygote is then transferred to the fallopian tube or uterus for further development. This is called ET or Embryo Transfer.


ET can be done in two methods.

  1. ZIFT – Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer
  2. IUT  - Intra Uterine Transfer.


  • The zygote upto 8 blastomeres transferred to Fallopian tube and it is called ZIFT method.
  • The zygote with more than 8 blastomeres transferred to uterus and is called IUT.


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