Power Sharing?
Q1: People belonging to the same ethnic group believe in their same
(a) Descent
(b) Nationality
(c) Religion
(d) Creed
Answer: (a) Descent
Q2: A very good example of sharing power among different social group is
(a) Panchayati Raj system in India
(b) Demand for separate Eelam by Tamils
(c) Community Government in Belgium
(d) Federal arrangement in India
Answer: (c) Community Government in Belgium
Q3: In Srilanka, the democratically elected government adopted a series of which measures to establish Sinhala supremacy?
(a) Community Government
(b) Federal Government
(c) Majoritarian Government
(d) Prudential Government 
Answer: (c) Majoritarian Government
Q4: Prudential Reasons states that:
(a) Power sharing is the spirit of democracy.
(b) Power sharing reduces the possibility of social conflicts
(c) Majority should always rule
(d) A check and balance system is necessary in a democracy.
Answer: (b) Power sharing reduces the possibility of social conflicts
Q5: Which of the following system of power sharing is called checks and balances?
 (a) Federal division of powers
(b) Separation of powers
(c) Vertical Division of powers
(d) Horizontal distribution of powers
Answer:   (d) Horizontal distribution of powers
Q6: Which of the following was the outcome of the civil war in Sri Lanka?
(a)  Set back to Sri Lanka's excellent record of economic development.
(b) Destruction of both majority and minority
(c) Demand for separate Tamil homeland
(d) All of these. 
Answer: (d) All of these. 
Q7: What were the Causes of ethnic struggles in Belgium:?
What were the major causes of tension among the ethnic communities of Belgium? 
(long answer 5 marks)
Answer: Belgium is a small country in Europe. It shares its borders with Dutch, France and Germany. It has a population reaching 10 million and ethnic composition of the country is complex.
Out Of Belgium’s total population, 59% live in Flemish region and speak Dutch language.
Another 40% live in Wallonia region and speak French. 
Remaining 1% of Belgians speak German.
In her capital city Brussels, 80% speak French while 20% are Dutch speaking.
The minority French speaking community is relatively rich and powerful so the majority Dutch community showed resentment against it. This led to tension between the Dutch and French speaking communities in 1950s-1960s.
The conflict between the Dutch speaking and French speaking was more severe in Brussels because here, the Dutch speaking people were majority in Belgium but were in minority in Brussels.
Therefore, the ethnic struggle originated from tensions between Dutch and French community in Belgium.
Q8: What was basic reason for the tension between the French speaking and Dutch speaking communities in Belgium. (Short Q & A: 1 or 2 marks)
Answer: The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This
was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later. This led to tension between the Dutch speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s-60s.
Q9:Why power sharing is important?
Avoids Conflicts: Power sharing is important because it avoids or minimizes the conflict between different social groups.
Based on Democratic Principles: Social conflicts often lead to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order. It is one of the founding principle of democracy. People have to be consulted on how they should be governed.
Prudential reason: It emphasizes that power sharing brings better results.
Value Based: Morally, the very act of power sharing is valuable.
Q10: List the major social groups in Sri Lanka
Sinhalas (74%)
Tamils (18%)
Christians (7%)
Q11:  How could the tensions between the linguistic communities in Belgium be contained?
(a) The minority group accepted the dominance of the majority groups
(b) By making constitutional amendments
(c) By an agreement between the majority and minority groups.
(d) By accepting a federal pattern of government.
Answer: (c) By an agreement between the majority and minority groups.
Q12: What is the official religion of Sri Lanka?
Answer: Buddhism
Q13: What was the Act of 1956 in Sri Lanka?
Answer:  In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.
Q14: Define the term ‘Majoritarianism’.
Answer: It is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule the country in whichever ways it want, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority is called Majoritarianism. 
Q15: What were the majoritarian measures adopted by the Sri Lankan Government?
In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, disregarding Tamil.
The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
A new constitution stipulated that the state should protect and foster Buddhism. All these government measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.
Q16: Define the term 'Civil War'.
Answer: It is a violent conflict between opposing groups within a country that becomes
so intense that it appears like a war.
Q17: How did the Belgian Government resolve the ethnic diversities and tension between them?
What were the methods adopted by the Belgium leaders to resolve the ethnic conflict in Belgium?
Answer: The Belgium leaders recognized the existence of regional difference and cultural diversities. Between 1970-1993, their constitution was amended four times to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together in harmony. Following steps were taken:
Equal number of ministers from both the groups: It helped in way that no single community can take decisions unilaterally.
More powers to state government: Under the new power sharing arrangement, many powers of central govt. were given to state governments of the two regions of the country.
Equal representation at state and central level: A separate government was set up at Brussels giving equal representation to both communities.
Community Government Setup: Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.
It helped in mitigating the tension between the two major communities and averted a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Q 18(CBSE 2011): Which two languages are generally spoken in Belgium? 
(a) French and English 
(b) Dutch and English 
(c) French and Dutch 
(d) Dutch and Sinhala
Answer: (c) French and Dutch
Q19(CBSE 2011): The Government; in which power is shared by two or more political parties, is known as: 
(a) Community Government 
(b) Unitary Government 
(c) Federal Government 
(d) Coalition Government
Answer: (d) Coalition Government
Q20: Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power sharing:A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
C. delays decision making process
D. accommodates diversities
E. increases instability and divisiveness
F. promotes people’s participation in government
G. undermines the unity of a country
Answer: (a) A, B, D, F
Power Sharing:
A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
D. accommodates diversities
F. promotes people’s participation in government
Q21: Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
A. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
B. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala speaking majority.
C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
D. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Which of the statements given above are correct?(a) A, B, C and D 
(b) A, B and D 
(c) C and D 
(d) B, C and D
Answer: (d)  B, C, and D
Q22: Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
A. Power sharing is good for democracy.
B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?(a) A is true but B is false
(b) Both A and B are true
(c) Both A and B are false
(d) A is false but B is true
Answer: (b) Both A and B are true
Q23: What were the demands of Sri Lankan Tamils?
Sri Lanka Tamils demanded for the recognition of Tamil as an official language.
Regional autonomy
Equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.
Later they demanded an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka
Q24(CBSE): Which of the following minority communities is relatively rich and powerful in Belgium?(a) French
(b) Dutch
(c) German
(d) English
Answer: (a) French
Q25(CBSE): What is the %age of Sinhala speaking in Srilanka? Choose the correct option from the following:
(a) 58 
(b) 74
(c) 65 
(d) 82
Answer: (b) 74%
Q26: List the major forms of power sharing (1-2 marks question)
 Horizontal power sharing like legislative, executive and Judiciary.
Vertical Distribution like Union government, State and Local Government
Among Different Social Groups (Community Government).
Political parties, pressure groups and movements

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