Information about the history and various organs of the United Nations
History and Organs of UN
The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in theDeclaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies.
In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.
The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.
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With the attack of Germany on Poland on September 1, 1939, the Second World War broke out. It lasted nearly six years and came to an end in Europe with the unconditional surrender of Japan on August 14, 1945. The war was fought between the allied powers, ie, the United Kingdom, the USA, the USSR, France and a good number of other countries on one side and the Axis Powers, ie, Germany, Italy, and Japan on the otherside. It was a total war and it gradually engulfed the whole world. It stirred the conscience of mankind and the cry went forth from the hearts of the suffering humanity. - 'Never again' - There grew up a deep and universal feeling that the estableshment of a naw internal organisation was essential to save the world from the scourage of war and that feelings gave shape to THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. The failure of the League of Nations to prevent war and to promote peace strengthened the need for a collective security system. During the world war, many meetings conferences, declarations were held, which laid down the basic principles of the U.N. U.N. is based on the principle of free co - operation of its members. the primary objective of the UN is maintenance of peace and security in the world. On 26th June 1945, 51 nations signed the charter of the United Nations at San Francisco. The U.N. charter consists of 111 articles.
Organs of the U.N.
The U.N charter provided for six organs of the U.N. It is through these organs that its work is carried out for the fulfilment of the purposes of the U.N. The principal organs of the U.N are :-
1] The General Assembly
2] The Security Council
3] The Economic and Social Council.
4] The Trsuteeship Council
5] The International Court of Justice.
6] The Secretariat.
Specialised Agencies are organised by intergovernmental agreements for the promotion of economic, social, cultural, educational, health and humanitarian conditions. The activities of these agencies are coordinated by the Economic and Social Council. There are at present 18 independent specialised agencies functioning under the United Nations. They are :-
1] International Telecommunication Union [ ITU ].
2] World Meteorological Organisation.
3] Universal Postal Union [ UPU ].
4] International Labour Organisation [ ILO ].
5] International Civil Aviation [ ICA ].
6] Food and Agricultural Organisation [ FAO ].
7] International Monetary Fund [ IMF ].
8] United Nation's Educational, Scientific, Cultural organisation [ UNESCO ].
9] World Health Organisation [ WHO ].
10] International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [ IBRD ].
11] International Maritime Organisation [ IMO ].
12] International Finance Corporation [ IFC ].
13. International Atomic Energy Agency [ IAEA ]
14] International Development Association [ IDA ].
15] World Intellectual Property Organisation [ WIPO].
16] International Fund for Agricultural Development [ IFAD ]
17] United Nations Industrial Development Organisation [ UNIDO ]
18] World Trade Organisation [ WTO].