Name some modern industries which were in operation in our country at the time of independence.
The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed the emergence of modern industries. At the initial stage, development was confined to setting up of cotton and jute textile mills. The western parts of the country Maharashtra and Gujarat was the hub for cotton textile mills which were mainly dominated by the Indians whereas the jute industries were mainly concentrated in Bengal and were dominated by the British. In the beginning of the 20thcentury, Iron and steel industries also started emerging gradually. It was incorporated in 1907. Some other industries that were operating at a smaller scale during the British era were sugar industry, cement industry and paper industry.