Please answer question no 3 and 4

Solution -
3. The rise of commercial farming and the need for timber were the significant causes of deforestation in India during the colonial period.
4.Forest Acts 
In the different provinces, various Forest Acts were also being enacted by the mid-nineteenth century. 
The lives of pastoralists were changed by Forest Acts.
Some forests were declared as Reserved forests through the colonial Forests Act.
Sal or Deodar which was commercially valuable timber was produced in these Reserved forests.
In Reserved forests, pastoralists were not allowed.
Other forests were classified as Protected. In the protected forests, the movements of pastoralists were severely restricted, but they had some grazing rights in these forests.
The colonial officials believed that young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor and saplings were destroyed by grazing.
New trees were prevented from growing as the herds munched away the shoots and trampled over saplings.
The forests which gave important forage to the cattle of the pastoralists, were now prevented from entering those forests.
Even in the forests where they were allowed entry, there were heavy restrictions on their movements.
Even if the forests had ample undergrowth, even if succulent grass and forage was available, pastoralists were not allowed to remain in an area. Their lives were ruled by the permits given by the Forest department.
If the pastoralists overstayed, beyond the permitted time, they were liable to pay fines.

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