l. Define isozymes. 
2. At which stage of cell cycle, recombined homologous chromosomes (bivalents) form 
chiasma ta? 
3. What role does the cytotaxonomy play in biological classification? 
4. Wite the name of protist that is used as a pollution indicator, 
S. What would happen if a freshly plasmolysed cell is kept in hypotonic solution or pure 
6. How is different from coleoptile? 
7. What are the two key events which occur at the end of prophase 
8. What is fimbriae? State its one function. 
How do red algae prepare their food? 
What is the ecological importance of mosses? 
Discuss the contribution of Cornelius van Neil. 
I l. A student observed a having following characteristic.  
Free-living or parasitic, bilateral symmetry, organ system level of organisation, 
triploblastic and pseudocoelomate. 
(i) Identity to which phylum this specimen belongs. Give two other examples of 
organisms belonging to this phylum. 
(ii) Describe its digestion, excretion and reproduction briefly. 

Dear Student,

1. Isozymes are enzymes that have different structures but perform the same function. They have different amino acid sequences but catalyse the same reaction. This difference allows them to catalyse the same reaction at different locations.

2. The recombined homologous chromosomes (bivalents) form chiasmata at the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis.

3. Cytotaxonomy plays an important role in the classification of biological species. In this, scientists compare the characteristics of chromosomes (chromosome number, structure and behaviour) and position of the centromere. The information obtained from comparative studies helps in determining the categories of genus, species and sub-species.

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