State mandel first and second law of inheritance?
Three laws of inheritance are as follows
Law of Dominance
- According to this law, characters are controlled by discrete units called factors, which occur in pairs with one member of the pair dominating over the other in a dissimilar pair.
- This law explains expression of only one of the parental character in F1 generation and expression of both in F2 generation.
Law of Segregation (first law)
- This law states that the two alleles of a pair segregate or separate during gamete formation such that a gamete receives only one of the two factors.
- In homozygous parents, all gametes produced are similar; while in heterozygous parents, two kinds of gametes are produced in equal proportions.
Law of independent Assortment (second law)
- When two pairs of traits are combined in a hybrid, one pair of character segregates independent of the other pair of character.
- In a dihybrid cross between two plants having round yellow (RRYY) and wrinkled green seeds (rryy), four types of gametes (RY, Ry, rY, ry) are produced. Each of these segregate independent of each other, each having a frequency of 25% of the total gametes produced.