What is gene composed of?

Dear student,

Genes are composed of DNA molecules and code for proteins that form the structural and metabolic basis of living tissues. The DNA molecules in genes are arranged in the nucleotides or base pairs with the cell nucleus in a double-stranded right-handed helix. The nucleotides or bases in the DNA helix are paired so that A always binds with T and G always binds with C. Therefore, the sequence of nucleotides in one strand of DNA within a double helix is a "mirror image of the other strand resulting in complementary strands of DNA Complementary base pairs; That is, a strand of DNA composed  of the nucleotides ATC - GAT would have its complementary strand DNA composed of the nucleo tides TAG - CTA. In order for the DNA to fit in the nucleus, the DNA is arranged in nucleosomes with groups of DNA base pairs Wrapped around small proteins called histones. Chromosomes, which are ordinarily indistinct in nuclear chromatin but which are discrete during mitosis or cell division, consist of DNA packaged with histone and nonhistone proteins. Each gene is located on a specific site or locus on a specific chromosome.


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