Write short notes on the following giving one example of each

Q20. Write short notes on the following giving one example of each:

(i) Addition reaction
(ii) Resonance
(iii) Inductive effect


Dear Student,

Please find below the solution of your asked queries:
  • Addition reaction- A reaction in when two or more smaller molecules combine to form a bigger molecule is called addition reaction. Following in an example of addition reaction which is used for formation of vegetable ghee from vegetable oil. In unsaturated hydrocarbons, double or triple bonds are present. Atoms of different elements like hydrogen, chlorine, bromine etc. are added to these compounds across the double or triple bonds. For example-


  • Resonance Effect- Resonance effect is defined as the ‘polarity produced in the molecule by the interaction of two π-bonds or between a π-bond and lone pair of electrons present on an adjacent atom’. In simple terms it can be defined as the de-localisation of π electrons due to the presence of electron releasing or electron withdrawing substituents, which results in canonical forms with different electron distribution.
    It is designated as R or M effect. Now, a resonance effect can be either positive or negative.
    Look below positive and negative resonance effects one by one.
  • Inductive Effect- An inductive effect is an electronic effect due to the polarisation of σ bonds within a molecule or ion. This is typically due to an electronegativity difference between the atoms at either end of the bond. There are two types of inductive effect: +I and –I effect. Atoms or groups which pull electron density towards themselves are considered as exhibiting negative Inductive effect (–I) and groups which push electron density away from themselves exhibit positive Inductive effect (+I).

    For example-The inductive effect occurs in water molecules. The chemical bonds within a water molecule are more positively charged near the hydrogen atoms and more negatively charged near the oxygen atom. Thus, water molecules are polar.
Hope this information clears your doubts about the topic.

Keep asking!!


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