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Logical Reasoning

Introduction to logical reasoning

Logical Reasoning: The study of logic is also referred to as the study of reasoning. It is concerned with proposals and the elements that make them up. 

A proposition is a declarative sentence that states whether something is true or not. It may be broken down into four primary grammatical sections, just like any other sentence:

  1. The subject term
  2. The predicate term
  3. The quantifier
  4. The copula

Let's go over each term one by one.

   1. THE SUBJECT TERM: The subject of a proposition is the part of it about which anything is said. Consider the following scenario:

      2. THE PREDICATE TERM: The part of a phrase that tells us who or what the subject is. Consider the following scenario:

      3. THE QUANTIFIER: Quantifiers are words like "all," "no," and "some" that indicate an amount. Consider the following scenario:

     4. THE COPULA: A word or a group of words that link the proposition's subject and predicate. Consider the following scenario:

Let's have a look at the structure of a basic categorical proposition.
S.No. Quantifier Subject Copula Predicate
1 All birds can fly
2 No foxes are birds
3 Some replies are snakes
4 All S are P

NOTE: The letters 'S' and 'P' are used to denote the subject and predicate terms of a categorical proposition, respectively.

Quantity of categorical proposition :
The amount of a categorical proposition is a measurement of the degree to which the subject and predicate terms are related.
  • If the asserted inclusion or exclusion holds for every member of the class represented by the subject term, the categorical proposition is a universal proposition. Take into account::
        1. All oranges are fruits.
        2. No dog can fly.
  • If the asserted inclusion or exclusion holds for one or more members of the class defined by the subject term, a categorical proposition is a particular assertion. Consider the following scenario:
        1. Some animals are dogs.
        2. Some fruits are bitter.
Thus, the subject term is distributed in all propositions but undistributed in every particular proposition.

Quality of categorical proposition :

The nature …

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