Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry
Rectangular Coordinate System

If we draw three planes intersecting at O such that they are mutually perpendicular to each other, then these will intersect along the lines X′OX, Y′OY and Z′OZ. These lines constitute the rectangular coordinate system and are respectively known as the x, y, and zaxes.

Point O is called the origin of the coordinate system.
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The distances measured from XYplane upwards in the direction of OZ are taken as positive and those measured downward in the direction of OZ′ are taken as negative.
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The distances measured to the right of ZXplane along OY are taken as positive and those measured to the left of ZXplane along OY′ are taken as negative.
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The distances measured in front of YZplane along OX are taken as positive and those measured at the back of YZplane along OX′ are taken as negative.
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The planes XOY, YOZ, and ZOX are known as the three coordinate planes and are respectively called the XYplane, the YZplane…
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