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Biomolecules

Biomicromolecules

Analysis of Chemical Composition

  • Chemical analysis is done to find out the types of organic compounds (compounds containing carbons) found in living tissues.

    • Living tissue taken

    • Grinded in trichloro acetic acid to obtain slurry

    • Slurry is filtered to get filtrate (acid-soluble fraction: contains biomacromolecules) and retentate.

    • Thousands of organic compounds found in filtrate

    • Separation techniques used for separating one compound from another

    • Molecular formula and probable structure of the compound found by using analytical techniques

    • All carbon-containing compounds that we get from living tissues are called biomolecules.

  • Analysis of inorganic compounds:

    • Living tissue taken

    • It is dried to evaporate all water, and the remaining material gives its dry weight.

    • The dried material is burnt.

    • All organic compounds are oxidised to gaseous compounds and are removed to leave “ash”.

    • Ash contains many inorganic elements like Ca, Mg, etc.

Biomolecules

  • Chemistry point of view: Functional groups like aldehydes, ketones etc., can be recognised

  • Biology point of view: Organic and inorganic constituents of living cells are classified as amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotide bases, etc.
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  • Recognition of biomolecules, which can be micromolecules or macromolecules
  • Molecules with weight more than thousands − biomacromolecules

  • Molecules with weight less than thousands − biomicromolecules

Amino Acids

  • In these compounds, α-carbon has the substituents as hydrogen, carboxyl group, amino group and a variable group R.

  • Based on the R group, there are 20 amino acids
    When R is H − glycine (the simplest amino acid)
    When R is CH3 − alanine

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  • The chemical and physical propert…

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