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Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Chemical bond:

Chemical bond is the attractive force, which holds various constituents (such as atoms, ions) together in different chemical species.


Octet rule:

Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons so as to have eight electrons in their valence shells.


Lewis dot Structure:

Representation of molecules and ions in terms of the shared pairs of electrons and the octet rule







Formal charge:

Lewis structure of O3  



F.C. on the O-1 

F.C. on the O-2 

F.C. on the O-3


Limitations of the octet rule:

  • Incomplete octet of the central atom

E.g. BeH2, LiCl, BCl3



  • Odd electron molecules

E.g. NO, NO2



  • Expanded octet

E.g. PF5…

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