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Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

Introduction to Biotechnology

What is biotechnology?

  • Biotechnology refers to the technology using biology, which has applications in agriculture, food processing industry, medicine diagnostics, bioremediation, waste treatment, and energy production.

  • The European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) defines biotechnology as “the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues for products and services”.

Basis of Modern Biotechnology

  • Genetic engineering − Introduction of foreign genetic material (DNA/RNA) into the host’s genome and altering its phenotype

  • Aseptic techniques − Involves maintenance of contamination-free ambience in chemical engineering processes for manufacture of products such as antibiotics, vaccines, etc.This is done so as to enable the growth of only desired microbes responsible for a bioprocess.

Genetic Engineering

  • Asexual reproduction preserves the genetic information while sexual reproduction preserves variations.

  • Plant and animal hybridization procedures often result in introduction of undesirable genes along with desirable ones.

  • Genetic engineering overcomes this limitation.

  • Genetic engineering includes:

    • Creation of recombinant DNA

    • Gene cloning

    • Gene transfer into host organism

  • The int…

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