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Basic Geometrical Ideas

  • A point determines a location. The tip of a compass, the sharpened end of a pencil, the pointed end of a needle, etc., are the examples of points. Generally, points are denoted by capital letters.
  • A line segment corresponds to the shortest distance between two points. The line segment joining the points P and Q is denoted as .


  • A ray is a portion of a line, which starts at one point and goes endlessly in a direction.


This ray is denoted as . Arrow head is towards Q since it is extended along Q.

  • When a line segment PQ is extended indefinitely on both sides of points P…

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