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Carbon and Its Compounds

  • Branch of chemistry dedicated only to the study of carbon and its compounds is known as organic chemistry.

  • Carbon has a unique tendency of catenation. It binds with itself via a series of covalent bonds. This is the basis of organic chemistry.

  • The bonds that are formed by sharing electrons are known as covalent bonds.

Characteristics of organic compounds are:

  • They are covalent compounds of carbon.

  • They can exist in all three states i.e., solid, liquid, and gas.

  • They are soluble in organic solvents.

  • They are poor conductors of electricity.

Organic compounds can be classified into the following categories.

  • Open chain or aliphatic compounds

  • Closed chain or cyclic compounds

  • Carbocyclic or homocyclic compounds have ring comprising only of carbon atoms.

  • Heterocyclic compounds contain other elements besides carbon in the ring.


  • Covalent bonds
  • The bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are known as covalent bonds.
  • In covalent bonding, both the atoms (that are participating in the bonding) share electron…

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