Thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
In thermodynamics, we will see what happens when a hot body comes in contact with a colder body at a much lower temperature than the hot one. We will understand how a heat engine is used to carry out mechanical work and vice-versa. We will see different types of processes and how work is carried out in each process.
In this chapter, we will also see the working of a refrigerator and the thermodynamic principles associated with it. The efficiency associated with the Heat engine and refrigerator is studied. We will learn about the basic laws of thermodynamics, along with their statements.
Thermodynamics deals with heat and temperature, and the inter-conversion of heat and other energy forms.
Thermodynamics is a macroscopic science. It deals with the bulk system and does not go into the molecular constitution of matter.
Thermal equilibrium: State of a system is an equilibrium state if the macroscopic variables that characterize the system do not change. Two systems at the same temperature are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Adiabatic wall: It is an insulating wall that does not allow the flow of heat
Diathermic wall: It is a conducting wall that allows the flow of heat. In this case, thermal equilibrium can be attained.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
When two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
The physical quantity which is required to be in thermal equilibrium is temperature
Consider three systems, X, Y, and Z.
X and Y are separately in thermal equilibrium with Z.
TX = Temperature of X
TY = Temperature of Y
TZ = Temperature of Z
The systems X and Y are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.Introduction
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