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Page No 102:

Question 1:

Which of the following has a fibrous root system?
(a) mango
(b) wheat
(c) bean
(d) pea

Answer:

(b) wheat
Fibrous root system is present in wheat, rice, maize and all types of grasses. Fibrous roots spread out from the same point and appear to be of the same size. These roots are weak as compared to the tap roots.

Page No 102:

Question 2:

Which of the following is not a modified leaf?
(a) leaf tendril
(b) the pitcher of pitcher plant
(c) potato
(d) spines

Answer:

(d) potato
Potato is a modified stem. 

Page No 102:

Question 3:

Ginger is a modified stem because ____________ .
(a) it grows underground
(b) it is branched
(c) it has nodes and internodes
(d) it is not green

Answer:

(c) it has nodes and internodes
A stem has nodes and internodes on it. The nodes and internodes are present in ginger. Thus, it is a modified stem.

Page No 102:

Question 4:

What are the functions of the part marked X in this picture?
Figure
A. To anchor plant firmly to the ground.
B. To store excess food made by the plant.
C. To take in water for the plant.

(a) only B
(b) A and B only
(c) A, B and C
(d) only B and C

Answer:

(a) only B
The part marked X in the picture is a stem tuber. Its function is to store excess food made by the plant.

Page No 102:

Question 5:

Study the diagram of a simple leaf given below. Which of the following shows the correct labelling of the different parts?
Figure
(a) A-edge; B-veins; C-midrib; D-petiole
(b) A-midrib; B-edge; C-leaf bud; D-veins
(c) A-stalk; B-leaf bud; C-veins; D-midrib
(d) A-veins; B-midrib; C-leaf bud; D-edge

Answer:

(a) A-edge, B-veins, C-midrib, D-petiole
The correct labelling of the parts marked in the diagram is:
A-edge, B-veins, C-midrib, D-petiole.

Page No 102:

Question 6:

Both tap roots and fibrous roots are able to
(a) carry out photosynthesis.
(b) form annual rings.
(c) go deep into the soil.
(d) absorb water and minerals.

Answer:

(d) absorb water and mineral
The main function of the roots is to absorb water and minerals from the soil. Both tap roots and fibrous roots are able to absorb water and minerals from the soil.  However, tap roots go deep into the soil, whereas fibrous roots are not able to penetrate deep into the soil. 

Page No 102:

Question 7:

Which of the following statements is not true?
(a) The seed coat breaks when the bean seed germinates.
(b) On germination, the plumule gives rise to the shoot and the radical to the root.
(c) On germination, the plumule comes out first.
(d) The seeds of chick pea, green gram and pea can be germinated.

Answer:

(c) On germination, the plumule comes out first.
On germination, radicle comes out first. Radicle is also called baby root. It comes out first because the plant needs to absorb water and minerals for the leaves to function.



Page No 103:

Question 8:

Study the table carefully and answer questions 8 and 9.

Plant Modification Function
X ginger stores food
leaf onion stores food
root Y extra support

What will you replace 'X' with?
(a) potato
(b) store food
(c) growing new plant parts
(d) stem

Answer:

(a) Stem

X will be replaced with stem because ginger is a modified stem which stores food.

Page No 103:

Question 9:

Study the table carefully and answer questions 8 and 9.

Plant Modification Function
X ginger stores food
leaf onion stores food
root Y extra support

What will you replace 'Y' with?
(a) carrot
(b) tendril
(c) prop roots
(d) radish

Answer:

(c) prop roots
Y will be replaced with prop roots because they provide extra support to the horizontal branches of trees such as banyan.

Page No 103:

Question 10:

Which of these is a modification to save water?
(a) spine
(b) potato
(c) tendril
(d) prop roots

Answer:

(a) spine
In deserts, there is shortage of water and the leaves of some plants are turned into prickly spines to reduce surface area and minimise water loss. Photosynthesis in these plants does not take place in leaves. In these plants, stem becomes thick, fleshy and green. Photosynthesis takes place in the stem rather than in the spiny leaves.

Page No 103:

Question 11:

Answer the following questions.
(a) Give two important functions of roots.
(b) Name the two main systems of the plant.
(c) Which part of the plant do we eat in the following vegetables?
spinach, cauliflower, sweet potato, ginger, cabbage, onion, tomato, potato, carrot, capsicum
(d) What is germination?

Answer:

(a) Two important functions of roots are:
  (i) To absorb water and minerals from the soil
  (ii) To provide support to the plant

(b) The two main systems of a plant are the root and shoot systems.

(c)
Spinach - Leaves
Cauliflower - Flower
Sweet potato - Root
Ginger - Stem
Cabbage - Leaves
Onion - Leaves
Tomato - Fruit
Potato - Stem
Carrot - Root
Capsicum - Fruit

(d) Germination is a process in which a dormant embryo in the seed becomes active at the onset of favourable conditions and germinates into a small seedling.

Page No 103:

Question 12:

Differentiate the following with the help of diagrams.
(a) tap root and fibrous root
(b) root hair and lateral root

Answer:

(a)


(b)

Page No 103:

Question 13:

Give one word for the following.
(a) mature ovary
(b) the landing place for pollen grains
(c) the place on the stem where a leaf arises
(d) the baby shoot
(e) an example of a stem tendril
(f) group of flowers on a stalk
(g) a modified root for storage
(h) transfer of pollen grain from anther to the stigma of a flower

Answer:

(a) Fruit
(b) Stigma of the carpel
(c) Node
(d) Plumule
​(e) Bottle gourd
(f) Inflorescence
(g) Carrot
(h) Pollination

Page No 103:

Question 14:

Find the odd one out in each group and give reasons for your choice.
(a) pollen, ovule, anther, filament
(b) stigma, style, filament, ovary
(c) sweet potato, radish, carrot, potato

Answer:

(a) Ovule
Pollen, anther, filament are parts of a stamen. Ovule is found in pistil.

(b) Filament
Style, stigma, ovary are parts of pistil. Filament is found in stamen.

(c) Potato
Sweet potato, radish and carrot are modified roots. Potato is a modified stem.

Page No 103:

Question 15:

Explain the following terms.
pollination, photosynthesis, modifications, transpiration, dispersal of seeds and fruits

Answer:

Pollination: Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the stamens of a flower to the pistil of the same or another flower.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the process through which green plants synthesise their food in the presence of sunlight. In photosynthesis, green plants synthesise glucose by the reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is released in the process.

Modification: When a particular part of a plant starts performing a function than what is expected then it is said to be a modification of that part. For example, stems usually provide support to the plant but some stems modify to function as storage of food or carrying out photosynthesis.

Transpiration: Transpiration is the process in which water is lost from the leaves of the plants to the atmosphere. The leaves of a plant contain tiny pores called stomata. Water is lost during transpiration through stomata.

Dispersal of seeds and fruits: Dispersal of seeds and fruits means transfer of seeds and fruits to different places. It is carried out by various agencies such as animals, air and water.

 

Page No 103:

Question 16:

Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
(a) ____________ is an example of an underground stem.
(b) Plants make their food by __________.
(c) In cacti, the stem is thick, fleshy and _____________. It carries out photosynthesis.
(d) The _________ of a flower changes into a fruit and ___________change into seeds.
(e) The male reproductive part of a flower is ______________.
(f) The coloured ____________ of a flower attract insects for ___________.
(g) Water and minerals are transported from the ground through the ___________ and the ___________ to the leaves.

Answer:

(a) Potato is an example of underground stem.
(b) Plants make their food by photosynthesis.
(c) In cacti, the stem is thick, fleshy and green. It carries out photosynthesis.
(d) The ovary of a flower changes into a fruit and ovule changes into seeds.
(e) The male reproductive part of a flower is stamen.
(f) The coloured petals of a flower attract insects for pollination.
(g) Water and minerals are transported from the ground through the roots and the shoots to the leaves. 

Page No 103:

Question 17:

Look at the three pictures shown here. Classify them as shrubs, herbs and trees. Also mention the characteristics that helped you to classify them into the three categories.
Figure

Answer:

Figure (a) shows trees. Trees are big and tall. They have hard trunks and many branches.

Figure (b) shows shrubs. Shrubs are smaller plants with hard stems which are not very thick. They usually branch out near the base.

Figure (c) shows herbs. Herbs are small plants with soft green stems. They do not show branching. 

Page No 103:

Question 18:

What difference is there in the shape of stems that are used for climbing and those used for carrying out the functions of a leaf?

Answer:

Climbing stems Stems with functions of leafs
The stems used for climbing are in the form of thin, wiry, coiled. They do not have distinct nodes and internodes. The stems that carry out the functions of a leaf are flat, fleshy and green leaf like. They have distinct nodes and internodes.



Page No 104:

Question 19:

Draw diagrams to explain the difference between reticulate and parallel venation. The leaves of the lily plant have parallel arrangement of veins. Just by looking at the leaves, Veena is able to identify the type of root system in the plant. Explain how this possible. What type of root system will the lily have?

Answer:

Veena is able to find out the type of root system because in plants with tap roots, the leaves have reticulate venation, whereas in plants with fibrous roots, the leaves have parallel venation. Lily have parallel arrangement of leaves; therefore, fibrous root system is present in lily.

Page No 104:

Question 20:

Draw a neat, fully-labelled diagram of a flower.

Answer:



     Diagram of a flower

Page No 104:

Question 21:

While moving plants from one place to another, we are advised to remove them from the ground with a ball of soil left around the roots. Explain why this is a good suggestion.

Answer:

It is because roots are very delicate. The ball of soil around the roots keeps the roots intact and protects the roots from damage while moving the plants from one place to another.

Page No 104:

Question 22:

A teacher shows her class two different kinds of leaves. One is from a very hot, dry region. The other is from a warm, moist region. Describe how the leaves might be different from each other.

Answer:

The leaf from a dry hot region will be turned into prickly spines. In these plants, stem performs photosynthesis and becomes fleshy and green.
The leaf from moist region will have either reticulate or parallel venation. 

Page No 104:

Question 23:

Describe the germination of a bean seed. Draw neat, labelled diagrams to support your answer.

Answer:




Under favourable conditions, a bean seed absorbs water and swells up. The seed coat ruptures and the radicle grows downwards to form the root system and grows. The radicle forms the main root from where the lateral roots emerge. The cotyledons come into the air above the soil. The two cotyledons form the first green leaves. The plumule (baby shoot) bears the young leaves at its tip. These young leaves start preparing food for the plants through photosynthesis.

Page No 104:

Question 24:

Give two examples for each of the following.
(a) a modified stem
(b) flowers found as an inflorescence
(c) insectivorous plants
(d) plants whose leaves are modified to store food
(e) trees with prop roots
(f) plants with reticulate venation in their leaves
(g) flowers that are eaten

Answer:

(a) Ginger and potato
(b) Petunia and Hibiscus
(c) Pitcher plant and sundew plant
(d) Onion and garlic
(e) Banyan and peepal
(f) Coriander and china rose
(g) Cauliflower and sunflower



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