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(a) A mixture with the same composition and properties throughout is called a homogeneous mixture.
(b) A mixture, the different parts of which vary in composition and properties, is called a heterogeneous mixture.
(c) The solid that settles when a heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture is allowed to stand is called sediment.
(d) The liquid above the solid settling in a heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture is called supernatant.

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Yes, there can be both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous solid-liquid mixtures.
Salt dissolved in water and sugar dissolved in water are examples of a homogeneous solid-liquid mixture.
Sand in water and chalk in water are examples of a heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture.

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Winnowing is a method used to separate a mixture of two solids in which one solid is lighter than the other. The lighter solid is separated from the heavier one with the help of wind. This method is used to separate chaff from grain.

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Sieving is a method used to separate a solid mixture. A mesh is used in this process. The particles that are smaller than the holes of the mesh fall out and the bigger ones remain on the mesh.

Examples:

  1. Sieving is used to filter tea from tea leaves.
  2. Sand is sieved to separate it from gravel and small stones.

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Cream is obtained from milk by churning the milk either manually or in a mixer. On churning, cream being lighter than milk, starts floating over the surface of milk.

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A saturated solution is a solution in which no more of the solute can be dissolved at a given temperature.

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Immiscible liquids are those liquids that form different layers on mixing, such as oil and water. Immiscible liquids can be separated from each other by the process of decantation or by using a separating funnel. The heavier liquid settles at the bottom and can be collected in a different vessel by opening the stopcock.

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A mixture of sand and iron fillings can be separated by using a magnet. Take a magnet and move it over the mixture. Iron fillings will stick to the magnet leaving the sand behind. This method is called magnetic separation.

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Crystals of sugar can be prepared by the method called crystallisation. Take a mixture of sugar and water in a beaker and keep it on the burner. When the mixture becomes concentrated, remove it from the burner and allow it to cool. On cooling, crystals of sugar will be formed in the beaker.

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Common salt is obtained from sea water by evaporation. Sea water is collected in shallow pits dug on the sea shore and water is allowed to evaporate by the heat of the sun. When a large amount of water has evaporated, the solution becomes concentrated, and salt starts to crystallise.

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The following experiment demonstrates the distillation of water:

Take some salt and water in a pan and place a dry lid over it. Now heat the mixture slowly until it starts boiling. After a few minutes, remove the lid. We can see that water vapour has condensed on the inner side of the lid. Collect this water in another clean vessel by tapping the lid from behind. Repeat this process to collect more water. The water that has been collected is pure water and the salt will be left behind as a solid residue.

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A mixture of sand and salt can be separated by mixing the mixture itself in water. Salt is soluble in water but sand is not. Sand can be separated from the mixture by filtration, in which sand is left behind on the filter paper as residue and the salt solution is filtered out. Salt can be separated from water by evaporation. When the solution becomes concentrated, cool the solution. Then the salt will be crystallised.



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(d) A nitrogen−oxygen mixture
A nitrogen−oxygen is a homogeneous mixture of gases.

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(a) A salt−pepper mixture

A salt−pepper mixture is a heterogeneous mixture.

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(c) Stainless steel
Stainless steel is an alloy of steel, chromium and nickel.

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(d) Hand-picking
Hand-picking is the method used to separate pulses from rice.

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(a) Magnetic separation
A magnets attracts iron. Thus magnetic separation is used to separate iron from sulphur particles.

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(b) Decantation
Decantation is a process of separating immiscible liquids.

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1. The constituents of a mixture can be separated by physical means.
2. Mist is a heterogeneous mixture.
3. An alloy is a homogeneous solid mixture.
4. Sugar candy is made by crystallisation.
5.

Type of mixture Example Method of separation
(i) A heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture Muddy water Sedimentation and filtration
(ii) A heterogeneous solid mixture Bran and flour Sieving
(iii) A heterogeneous solid mixture that contains one soluble constituent Sand and salt Filtration and evaporation
(iv) A heterogeneous liquid mixture Oil and water Separating funnel

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A B
(a) A chalk-water mixture (iv) A heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture
(b) A glucose solution (iii) A homogeneous solid-liquid mixture
(c) A fizzy drink (v) A gas-liquid mixture
(d) Smoke (ii) A solid-gas mixture
(e) Air (i) A gaseous mixture



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