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Page No 89:

Question 1:

Write two examples for each of the following.

1. Unicellular organisms ....................... .......................
2. Biotic components ....................... .......................
3. Primary consumers ....................... .......................
4. Scavengers ....................... .......................
5. Decomposers ....................... .......................
6. Abiotic components ....................... .......................

Answer:

1. Unicellular organisms: Amoeba and Paramecium
2. Biotic components: Plants and animals
3. Primary consumers: Rabbit and deer
4. Scavengers: Hyena and vulture
5. Decomposers: Bacteria and fungi
6. Abiotic components: Water and air

Page No 89:

Question 1:

A group of tissues performing a particular function in the body form an
(a) cell
(b) tissue
(c) organ
(d) organ system

Answer:

(c) organ
An organ is a group of tissues performing a particular function in the body.

Page No 89:

Question 2:

Which of these is a multicellualr organisms?
(a) Amoeba
(b) Paramoecium
(c) Human beings
(d) None of these

Answer:

(c) human beings
Amoeba and Paramecium are unicellular, whereas human beings are multicellular organisms.

Page No 89:

Question 3:

All animals fall in the category of
(a) heterotrophs
(b) autotrophs
(c) decomposers
(d) primary consumers

Answer:

(d) primary consumers
Animals cannot synthesise their own food and depend on either plants or other animals for food. Hence, all animals are primary consumers.

Page No 89:

Question 4:

Biotic components include
(a) air, water, and plants
(b) plants and animals
(c) air, water, and soil
(d) soil, plants, and water

Answer:

(b) plants and animals
Plants and animals are the living or biotic components.

Page No 89:

Question 5:

Abiotic components include
(a) air, water, and plants
(b) plants and animals
(c) air, water, and soil
(d) soil, plants, and water

Answer:

(c) air, water and soil
Abiotic components are the non-living components that include air, water and soil.

Page No 89:

Question 1:

Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
1. Things around us can be divided into .......................... and .......................... (herbivores/carnivores/living/non-living).
2. A .......................... (cell/organism) is the smallest structure that is able to function independently.
3. A group of similar cells that perform a particular function form a/an .......................... (tissue/organ).
4. .......................... (Growth/Breathing) is a part of respiration.
5. Bacteria and fungi are common .......................... (decomposers/scavengers).
6. .......................... (Temperature/Air) affects the distribution of plants and animals across.

Answer:

1. Things around us can be  divided into living and non-living.
2. A cell is the smallest structure that is able to function independently.
3. A group of similar cells that perform a particular function form a tissue.
4. Breathing is a part of respiration.
5. Bacteria and fungi are common decomposers.
6. Temperature affects the distribution of plants and animals across the planet.



Page No 90:

Question 1:

Define a cell.

Answer:

A cell is the smallest living structure that is able to function independently. It is the structural and functional unit of life.

Page No 90:

Question 2:

Define environment. Name the different components of the environment.

Answer:

All those components that surround living things and affect their growth and development form the environment.
The environment is made up of two components, namely biotic and abiotic.

Page No 90:

Question 3:

Differentiate between scavengers and decomposers.

Answer:

Scavengers Decomposers
Living organisms that feed on the dead bodies of other animals are called scavengers. Living organisms that feed on the remains of dead plants and animals to break them down into simpler substances are called decomposers.
Example: Hyena and vulture. Example: Bacteria and fungi.

Page No 90:

Question 4:

How do scavengers and decomposers help in recycling of nutrients?

Answer:

Scavengers and decomposers help in mixing nutrients released from dead bodies with soil; these nutrients are then absorbed by plants. This process is called recycling of nutrients.

Page No 90:

Question 5:

Give examples to show that air is important for the survival of organisms.

Answer:

Oxygen and carbon dioxide present in air are very important for the survival of organisms. Both plants and animals need oxygen for respiration. Example: Moving air or wind help in the reproduction of plants through dispersal of pollens from anther to stigma.

Page No 90:

Question 1:

Describe the characteristics of living things in detail.

Answer:

The characteristics of living things are described below:
1. Structural organisation:
Living things are made up of cells, which are the building blocks of the body.
2. Movement and response to stimuli:
Living things respond to a stimuli. Example: Leaves of touch-me-not curl up when touched. Here, touch is the stimulus and curling up of leaves is the response.
3. Growth:
Living things grow. Example: A child grows into an adult.
4. Excretion:
Living things remove wastes from their body by the process of excretion.
5. Respiration:
Living things have the ability to respire. Breathing is a part of respiration.
6. Reproduction:
Living things have the ability to reproduce.
7. Life span and death:
All living things follow a cycle of growth and development in which an organism takes birth, grows into an adult, grows old and dies.

Page No 90:

Question 2:

How do plants exhibit movement and respond to stimuli?

Answer:

Plants do not move on their own. However, they exhibit movement of their certain parts like leaves and roots in response to change in their immediate environment. Example: Leaves of touch-me-not curl up when touched, shoots of a plant grow towards the light and the roots grow towards gravity. Here, light and gravity are the stimuli and plant growth is the response.

Page No 90:

Question 3:

Describe the biotic components of the environment.

Answer:

The biotic components of the environment are as follows:
1. Plants: Most plants have green leaves. Green plants make their own food using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light and chlorophyll. This process is called photosynthesis.
2. Animals: Animals cannot make their own food, so they are called heterotrophs. Animals obtain their nutrients by eating plants or the flesh of other animals.
3. Scavengers and decomposers: Animals that feed on the dead bodies of other animals are called scavengers. Example: Hyena and vulture. Tiny organisms that feed on the remains of dead plants and animals to break them down into simpler substances are called decomposers. Example: Bacteria and fungi.

Page No 90:

Question 4:

Explain how biotic components interact among each other.

Answer:

Plants and animals are biotic components; they depend on each other for various needs.
In nature, the following relationships are observed among plants, animals, scavengers and decomposers:

  1. Plants utilise sun's energy and manufacture their own food through photosynthesis.
  2. Herbivores like rabbit and deer feed on plants.
  3. Carnivores like tiger and lion feed on herbivores.
  4. Omnivores like human beings and bear feed on both plants and animals.
  5. Scavengers and decomposers feed on dead plants and animals and release the nutrients trapped inside their bodies into the soil. These nutrients are then absorbed by the plants.

Page No 90:

Question 5:

Describe the different abiotic components of the environment, with their effect on the biotic components.

Answer:

The word 'abiotic' means 'non-living'. Light, air, water, soil and temperature are some of the examples of abiotic components of environment.

  1. Light: Plants use light to prepare their food.
  2. Temperature: Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is. Temperature affects the distribution of plants and animals around the planet.
  3. Air: Oxygen and carbon dioxide present in air are very important for the survival of organisms. Both plants and animals need oxygen for respiration.
  4. Water: Water is very important for living organisms. Water is essential for carrying out photosynthesis in plants. Blood, which transports substances within the human body, is largely composed of water.
  5. Soil: Soil is the uppermost layer of the Earth's crust. Soil is very rich in minerals like magnesium, potassium and phosphorus and helps the plant in its growth and development.

Page No 90:

Question 2:

Write one word for the following.
1. The living component of the environment .......................
2. Animals that feed on dead bodies of other animals .......................
3. The measure of how hot or cold something is .......................
4. Animals whose body temperature does not change with outside temperature .......................
5. The bottom most layer of the soil .......................

Answer:

1. The living component of the environment: Biotic component
2. Animals that feed on dead bodies of other animals: Scavengers
3. The measure of how hot or cold something is: Temperature
4. Animals whose body temperature does not change with outside temperature: Warm-blooded
5. The bottom most layer of the soil: Bedrock



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