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Page No 279:

Question A.1:

Organisms which break down dead remains of plants and animals into simpler substance
(a) producers
(b) consumers
(c) decomposers
(d) all of these

Answer:

(c) decomposers
    Decomposers break down the dead remains of plants and animals into simpler substances.

Page No 279:

Question A.2:

Water is disinfected with
(a) chlorine
(b) ultraviolet rays
(c) ozone gas
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) all of these
     Water is generally disinfected using chlorine, UV rays or ozone gas.

Page No 279:

Question A.3:

Which one of the following is not a water-borne disease?

Answer:

(d) Hepatitis
      Hepatitis is not a water-borne disease.

Page No 279:

Question A.4:

Formation of shadows suggests that light travels in a
(a) vacuum
(b) straight line
(c) curved path
(d) none of these

Answer:

(b) straight line
      Formation of shadows is a result of rectilinear propagation of light.

Page No 279:

Question A.5:

The third stage in the water treatment process is a
(a) physical process
(b) biological process
(c) chemical process
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) chemical process
     The third stage in the water treatment process is a chemical process.

Page No 279:

Question B:

Fill in the blanks:
1. Complex network of food chain is called ...................... .
2. The impurities present in waste water are called ...................... .
3. World Water Day is celebrated every year on ...................... .
4. Producers are also called ...................... .
5. Soaps and detergents are ...................... wastes.

Answer:

  1. Complex network of food chain is called food web.
  2. The impurities present in waste water are called contaminants.
  3. World Water Day is celebrated every year on 22nd March.
  4. Producers are also called autotrophs.
  5. Soaps and detergents are domestic wastes.

Page No 279:

Question C:

Match the columns:

Column A Column B
1. Sludge (a) Organic waste
2. Pesticides (b) Forest conservation
3. Chipko Andolan (c) Biogas
4. Van Mahotsava (d) Stems
5. Crown (e) Protecting forest

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Sludge (c) Biogas
2. Pesticides (a) Organic waste
3. Chipko Andolan (e) Protecting forest
4. Van Mahotsava (b) Forest conservation
5. Crown (d) Stems

Page No 279:

Question D:

Write True (T) of False (F):
1. Part of a tree above the ground is canopy. ( )
2. Groundwater is also called aquifer. ( )
3. Birds and insects help in pollination. ( )
4. Concave lenses are thinner at the centre and thicker at the edges. ( )
5. Forest is a biotic community. ( )

Answer:

1. (F) 
    The part of the tree above ground consists of the stem and the branches

2. (T)

3. (T)

4. (T)

5. (T)



Page No 280:

Question E:

Name two examples of:

1. Methods of irrigation. .......................... ..........................
2. Uses of convex mirror. .......................... ..........................
3. Sources of natural water. .......................... ..........................
4. Uses of forest. .......................... ..........................
5. Sources of waste water. .......................... ..........................

Answer:

  1. Drip; Sprinkler
  2. Rear-view mirror; Surveillance in shops
  3. Rain; Aquifers
  4. Food resource; Fuel resource
  5. Home; Industry

Page No 280:

Question F:

Write the constituent colours of white light:
V ..........................
I ..........................
B ..........................
G ..........................
Y ..........................
O ..........................
R ..........................

Answer:

V - Violet
 I - Indigo
B - Blue      
G - Green
Y - Yellow
O - Orange
R - Red

Page No 280:

Question G.1:

Distinguish between real and virtual images.

Answer:

Real Image Virtual Image
Can be obtained on a screen Cannot be obtained on a screen
The rays of light meet at a point after reflection The rays of light seem to meet at a point after reflection
It is always inverted  It is erect, but is laterally inverted

Page No 280:

Question G.2:

Why is the level of underground water falling?

Answer:

The level of underground water is falling due to excessive usage of groundwater, owing to increasing human population. In recent times, more wells have been dug up to extract ground water. Also, excessive deforestation has prevented the replenishment of groundwater, further leading to its depletion.

Page No 280:

Question G.3:

Which type of mirror can form a real image?

Answer:

A convex mirror forms a real image, when the object is not too close to the mirror.

Page No 280:

Question G.4:

What is the function of a treatment plant?

Answer:

A water treatment plant takes in polluted water and treats it, making it safe for human consumption.

Page No 280:

Question H.1:

How will you prove that light consists of seven colours using Newton's colour disc?

Answer:

The Newton's disc is a disc with sectors of the seven colours, viz. Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. To prove that white light is made up of these seven colours, the Newton's disc is rapidly rotated, and the disc appears to be white in colour. This occurs when the rotation of disc occurs at a high angular speed. This proves that the seven colours combine to give white colour.

Page No 280:

Question H.2:

What are the ill effects of water scarcity on the life of the people?

Answer:

Water scarcity has the following effects on the quality of life:

  1. Food crops are destroyed and animals die, which leads to famines and droughts.
  2. People have to migrate in search of water and food.
  3. In extreme cases, water scarcity can lead to wars and disintegration of countries.

Page No 280:

Question H.3:

What is rainwater harvesting? How does it help to solve the water problem?

Answer:

Rainwater harvesting involves the storage rain water, that would otherwise be drained away. In rainwater harvesting, rain water is collected and diverted into percolation tanks. It is stored in them for later use.
This water helps to replenish groundwater reserves. Further, the stored rainwater can be used for washing and cleaning, thus reducing the demand for potable water for these activities. Also, it can be supplied to agricultural fields during times of water scarcity. Hence, it helps to solve the water problem.

Page No 280:

Question H.4:

Why are Ganga and Yamuna rivers rivers regarded as open sewers?

Answer:

Considerable population lives by the banks of the Ganga and Yamuna. A large amount of waste is generated by the population (such as sewage and human wastes) that are dumped into these. Also, industrial wastes are directly discharged into these rivers. Lastly, since the Ganga is holy, cremated corpses are also immersed into the two rivers. As a result, these rivers are regarded as open sewers.

Page No 280:

Question H.5:

How do trees help in checking noise pollution?

Answer:

Sound propagates in the form of waves. The leaves of trees help break up the sound waves by creating an interference in their path. This dampens and muffles sounds. In this way, trees help in reducing noise pollution.



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