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#### Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:

figure

Across
1. Winter sleep of animals
2. An average weather pattern over a long period of time
3. Water vapour content in atmosphere
4. A flightless bird of polar region

Down
2. A very good example of camouflage
6. Height of a place above sea level

Across
1. Hibernation
2. Climate
3. Humidity
4. Penguin

Down
2. Chameleon
6. Altitude

#### Question B.1:

Which of the following places in India has rainforests?
(a) Punjab
(c) Assam

(c) Assam

Assam is one of the places in India that has rainforests.

#### Question B.2:

The weather pattern that prevails over a long period of time in an area is called
(a) weather
(b) climate
(c) season
(d) atmosphere

(b) climate

Climate is the average weather pattern that prevails over a long period of time in an area.

#### Question B.3:

The climate of a place depends on its
(a) latitude
(b) altitude
(c) distance from the sea
(d) all of these

(d) all of these

The climate of a place depends on a number of factors such as latitude, altitude and distance from the sea.

#### Question B.4:

Inactivity of animals during winter is known as
(a) hibernation
(b) migration
(c) both of these
(d) none of these

(a) hibernation

The inactive and resting stage of animals during winter is called hibernation.

#### Question B.5:

Water content in the atmosphere is called
(a) humidity
(b) ocean current
(c) latitude
(d) altitude

(a) humidity
Water content in the atmosphere is called humidity.

#### Question B.6:

The movement of animals from one place to another to tide over adverse climatic conditions is called
(a) migration
(b) hibernation
(c) aestivation
(d) none of these

(a) migration

The movement of animals from one place to another to tide over the adverse climatic conditions is called migration.

#### Question B.7:

Weather of a particular place depends upon the
(a) rainfall
(b) wind speed
(c) humidity
(d) all of these

(d) all of these

Weather of a particular place depends on rainfall, wind speed, humidity and temperature.

#### Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. The humidity in coastal areas is usually ........................... than that of the inland areas.
2. Altitude and latitude affect the ........................... of a place.
3. Some animals become inactive during ........................... and the process is called ........................... .
4. The north region is called ........................... region while the south polar region is called ........................... region.
5. The higher one goes from sea level, the ........................... it becomes.

1. The humidity in coastal areas is usually greater than that of the inland areas.
2. Altitude and latitude affect the climate of a place.
3. Some animals become inactive during winter and the process is called hibernation.
4. The north region is called Arctic region while the south polar region is called Antarctic region.
5. The higher one goes from sea level, the cooler it becomes.

#### Question 1:

Why is Chennai more humid than Delhi?

Chennai is a coastal region (very close to the sea). Coastal areas are more humid because the wind blowing from the sea towards the land carries a lot of moisture. On the other hand, Delhi being an inland area (far away from the sea) has hot, dry summers and cold, dry winters because most of the moisture evaporates before it reaches the inland areas.

#### Question 2:

Is it possible for us to live in Antarctica? Give reason to support your answer.

Yes, it is possible but difficult for us to live in Antarctica because we do not have the adaptive features that help us to survive in those habitats.

#### Question 3:

Why do clothes take longer time to dry on a rainy day?

Wet clothes dry up when water evaporates from them. On a rainy day, the relative humidity (moisture content in air) is high; so, air cannot take in more moisture from the wet clothes. Hence, it takes longer for the clothes to dry on a rainy day.

#### Question D:

Match the item in Column A with the items in Column B:

 Column A Column B 1. Physical environment in which an organism lives (a) Adaptation 2. Height above sea level (b) Migration 3. Inactivity of animals during winter (c) Altitude 4. Movement of animals from one place to another (d) Habitat 5. Modifications in animals to survive in their natural habitats (e) Hibernation (f) Camouflaging

 Column A Column B 1. Physical environment in which an organism lives (d) Habitat 2. Height above sea level (c) Altitude 3. Inactivity of animals during winter (e) Hibernation 4. Movement of animals from one place to another (b) Migration 5. Modification in animals to survive in their natural habitats (a) Adaptation

#### Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. The climate of tropical rainforest is hot and humid. ( )
2. Polar regions remain covered with snow. ( )
3. Animals undergo hibernation during summer. ( )
4. Temperature on the earth's surface increases with increasing latitude. ( )
5. Penguins can swim as well as walk on land. ( )

1. True (T)

2. True (T)

3. False (F)
Animals hibernate during winter.

4. False (F)
Temperature on the earth's surface decreases with increasing latitude.

5. True (T)

#### Question A.1:

What is the climate of tropical rain forest?

The climate of a tropical rainforest is hot and humid with high rainfall throughout the year.

#### Question A.2:

What is meant by weather?

Weather is the condition of the atmosphere of a place on a day-to-day basis with respect to factors such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed and barometric pressure.

#### Question A.3:

What are weather stations?

Weather stations are the places where the weather data, such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, barometric pressure and wind direction, are continuously observed, recorded and processed.

#### Question A.4:

Define climate.

Climate is the average weather pattern prevailing in a particular area over a long period of time.

#### Question A.5:

Name two countries that belong to polar region.

Canada and Greenland are the two countries that belong to the north polar region (Arctic region).

#### Question A.6:

Name the factors on which the climate of a place depends.

The various factors on which the climate of a place depends are as follows:

1. Latitude

2. Distance from the sea

3. Direction of winds

4. Altitude

5. Humidity

6. Ocean currents

#### Question B.1:

How is the climate of a place affected by distance from the sea?

Climate of a place is affected by its distance from the sea. The places close to the sea (coastal regions) are cooler and more humid than inland regions because the wind blowing from the sea towards the land brings a lot of moisture with it. On the other hand, Inland areas are hotter and drier because most of the moisture evaporates before it reaches the inland regions.

#### Question B.2:

How is the climate of a place affected by wind current?

Wind currents move from one area to the other and affect the climate of the place. Prevailing winds blowing in a particular direction bring air from one kind of climate to the other. Winds blowing from hot and dry areas, such as Rajasthan, increase the temperature of the air. This results in hot and dry climate in summer. Winds blowing inland from colder regions reduce the temperature of the air; therefore, the regions such as Himalayas are cold and dry in winter.

#### Question B.3:

Why do penguins huddle together?

Penguins are aquatic, flightless birds that are found in the Antarctic region around the south pole. Penguins are adapted to huddle together to stay warm in the cold climate and ensure a greater chance of survival against predators. When penguins huddle together, they conserve a lot more energy than when they are in isolation. This increases their chances of survival during storms or freezing temperatures.

#### Question B.4:

What is hibernation and how is it useful to an organism?

The inactive or resting stage in some animals to conserve energy during winter is called hibernation. They come out of hibernation when the conditions are favourable for them.
During winter, temperatures are low and food resources are scarce. Hibernation during this time can help animals conserve energy and survive winter more easily.

#### Question B.5:

What is known as weather forecast?

Weather forecast is the prediction of the weather conditions that is likely to prevail on a particular day or over a next few days. Weather forecasts are useful to farmers, navigators, businessmen and fishermen in their day-to-day activities. Also, during natural disasters, it can alert the people so that they can evacuate to safer places.

#### Question B.6:

Why do birds migrate?

Birds migrate because of the following reasons:
1. For better food resources
2. For breeding
3. For avoiding predators
4. To escape adverse weather conditions

#### Question B.7:

Why are mountain regions cooler than plains?

Mountain regions are cooler than plains because of the following reasons:

1. Air becomes thinner with the increase in altitude. The thin air cannot absorb and retain much of the heat because air on the mountains is less dense compared to the air on the plains.

2. Mountains receive plenty of rainfall because of the rapid condensation of the clouds owing to the cold conditions at high altitudes.

3. Snow forms on the mountains because of the low temperatures and keeps the air cooler in the mountain regions for most part of the year.

#### Question C.1:

Why does the lion-tailed macaque not come down on the ground?

A lion-tailed macaque, also known as beard ape, is adapted to live in the tropical rainforests. Lion-tailed macaque is an arboreal (predominantly live in canopy of tall trees and do not come down on the ground) species. It adapts this behavioural pattern to avoid humans and other predators.

#### Question C.2:

How are penguins able to survive in extremely cold climates?

Penguins have the following adaptive features to survive in the cold climate:

1. Penguins have a thick soft skin and smooth feathers on their bodies to keep their bodies warm.

2. The white front part of the penguins camouflage well with the white background of the snow.

3. Penguins stay warm and fight their enemies by huddling together in groups.

4. The wings of the penguins also act as flippers and help them in swimming.

5. They use their tail and wings to balance themselves while standing or walking on the snow or thin ice.

6. The sharp eyesight of the penguins helps them in locating their prey easily.

#### Question C.3:

How do elephants living in tropical rainforests adapt to their environment?

Elephants living in the tropical rainforests have the following adaptive features:
1. Their long trunks help them in picking food.
2. Their long tusks help them in peeling barks of the tree.
3. Their large ears act as an excellent hearing tool and also keep their body cool during the hot and humid climate.

#### Question C.4:

How is polar bear adapted to live in polar regions?

Polar bears found in Arctic region around the north pole have the following adaptive features:

1. The thick coat of white fur and fat keeps it warm from cold climate.
2. The whiteness acts as a camouflage from its prey.
3. The short, stocky claws helps in preying (both on land and in water).
4. The curved and inward claws helps in digging the ice. The pads of its paws have small papillae that provides a grip while walking on ice.
5. The large feet helps to balance its weight while walking on snow or swimming in water.
6. The strong sense of smell helps to locate and catch its prey easily. The large sharp canines and small cheek teeth helps to hunt its prey.

#### Question C.5:

How does latitude affects the climate of a place?

Latitude plays a significant role in determining the climate of a place because of the spherical shape of the earth.
The angle of latitude is 0°  at the equator and increases to 90° as we move towards the north and south poles. The places at the equator receive sunlight at right angles because of  the position of the equator in relation to the sun. Therefore, the places close to equator are hotter as the sun's rays concentrate on a smaller area. On moving towards the places at poles, the sun's rays fall at a slanting angle and thereby make the areas colder as the sun's rays are spread out over a large area to heat up. Therefore, the places at the equator are warmer and the places at the poles are colder, causing a difference in the climate of the place.

#### Question C.6:

Why do tropical rainforest support a variety of animals?