Science NCERT Grade 8, Chapter 1, Crop Production and Management deals with the basic fundamentals of crop production and its management. The chapter defines the term crop in the initial discussion along with a few examples of crops. On the basis of seasons in which the crops are grown, they are classified as - 

  • Kharif crops

  • Rabi crops

These are substantiated with a number of examples. The major part of the chapter revolves around the best practices of crop production. Here, all the important agricultural practices are discussed in a comprehensive way. 

The agricultural practices discussed in the chapter, Crop Production and Management  are listed below: 

  1. Preparation of soil: In this section process of tilling and ploughing is covered in addition to agricultural implements used.

  1. Sowing: Here, the practice of selection of seeds is discussed.

  1. Adding manures and fertilizers: In this part, different examples of manures and fertilizers used are given along with their importance in crop production. Apart from this, differences between manures and fertilizers are also covered separately.

  1. Irrigation: Various sources of irrigation are mentioned along with traditional and modern methods of irrigation.

  1. Protection from weeds: This section deals with the protection of crops and mentions the terms weed, weeding and weedicides.

  1. Harvesting: The process of harvesting, threshing and winnowing are covered here. 

  1. Storage: Silos and granaries form part of the discussion under this section.

  At last, short information on animals as sources of food is also provided in the chapter, Crop Production and Management.

The chapter, Crop Production and Management  covers the following topics

  • Agricultural Practices
  • Basic Practices of Crop Production
  • Preparation of Soil
  • Sowing
  • Adding Manure and Fertilisers
  • Irrigation
  • Protection from Weeds
  • Harvesting
  • Storage
  • Food from Animals

Page No 13:

Question 1:

Select the correct word from the following list and fill in the blanks.

float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation

(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called _________.

(b) The first step before growing crops is ________ of the soil.

(c) Damaged seeds would _________ on top of water.

(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and _________ and _________ from the soil are essential.

Answer:

(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called _ crop _.

(b) The first step before growing crops is _ preparation__ of the soil.

(c) Damaged seeds would __float__ on top of water.

(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and _ water __ and _ nutrients_ from the soil are essential.



Page No 14:

Question 2:

Match items in column A with those in column B.

A

B

(i)

Kharif crops

(a)

Food for cattle

(ii)

Rabi crops

(b)

Urea and super phosphate

(iii)

Chemical fertilisers

(c)

Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste

(iv)

Organic manure

(d)

Wheat, gram, pea

(e)

Paddy and maize

Answer:

A

B

(i)

Kharif crops

(e)

Paddy and maize

(ii)

Rabi crops

(d)

Wheat, gram, pea

(iii)

Chemical fertilisers

(b)

Urea and super phosphate

(iv)

Organic manure

(c)

Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste

Page No 14:

Question 3:

Give two examples of each.

(a) Kharif crop

(b) Rabi crop

Answer:

(a) Kharif crop → Paddy, maize

(b) Rabi crop → Wheat, gram

Page No 14:

Question 4:

Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.

(a) Preparation of soil (b) Sowing

(c) Weeding (d) Threshing

Answer:

(a) Preparation of soil:

It is the first method to be followed before growing a crop. This method is usually employed for loosening the soil to allow the root to penetrate deep into it. The loosening of the soil helps in the growth of several soil microbes, earthworms etc., which enrich the soil with humus and other essential nutrients. Plants require nutrients for their proper growth and functioning. The process of loosening is called tilling or ploughing the soil. Tilling of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top. This helps the plants to utilize the nutrients for their growth.

(b)Sowing:

Sowing is another important step in crop production. It is the process of placing the seed in or on the soil for future growth. The seeds that are selected for growing should be of good quality. This will improve the net yield of the crop. Sowing is usually done with the help of either a traditional tool or a seed drill. The traditional tool is shaped like a funnel. It was used earlier for sowing seeds. Nowadays, seed drills that make the use of tractors are used for sowing seeds. This tool disperses seeds uniformly and sows seeds at proper depth. Sowing by this method saves time and also protects the seeds from birds.

(c)Weeding:

Undesirable plants that grow along with the crop are known as weeds. Weeding is the process of removing these weeds. Xanthium, Parthenium, etc. are some common weeds. Weeds compete with the crop for nutrients, light, and space. As a result, crop plants get lesser nutrients, light, and space for their development. This in turn, reduces their productivity. Thus, various weeding methods are employed.

Some important weeding methods are:

(i) Weeds can be controlled using weedicides. It is a chemical, which is sprayed in the fields to kill all available weeds. Weedicides are not harmful to crops.

(ii) Tilling before sowing of crops also helps in removing weeds. Tilling uproots the weeds. The best time for removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds.

(iii) The manual method of removing weeds is with the help of a khurpi. It involves regular uprooting or cutting of weeds close to the ground.

(d)Threshing:

Threshing is the process of separating grains or seeds from chaff. It is done after harvesting the crop. It is usually carried out with the help of a machine known as ‘Combine’. This machine is a combined harvester and thresher. It harvests plants as well as cleans grains.

Page No 14:

Question 5:

Explain how fertilisers are different from manure.

Answer:

Differences between fertilisers and manure:

Fertiliser

Manure

Fertilisers are commercially available plant nutrients.

Manure is a natural substance prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant wastes.

They can be organic or inorganic in nature.

Manure is known to have a large quantity of organic materials and very little amount of plant nutrients.

They ensure healthy growth and development of plants by providing them with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc.

They help in enriching the soil with organic matter and nutrients.

The addition of fertilisers to the soil requires special guidelines such as dose time, post addition precautions, etc., to be followed.

The addition of manure does not require any special guidelines.

A fertiliser does not provide any humus to the soil.

Manure provides humus to the soil and increases soil fertility.

Its excessive use causes water pollution. It cannot replenish organic matter of soil.

It protects the environment and helps in recycling farm waste.

Page No 14:

Question 6:

What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.

Answer:

Irrigation is the process by which water is supplied to crops at different intervals. The time and frequency of irrigation varies according to different seasons, crops, and soil types. There are various sources of irrigation such as wells, canals, rivers, dams, ponds, and lakes.

Two methods of irrigation which help in conservation of water are:

a) Sprinkler system:

This system is more useful on uneven land, having fewer water supplies. In this method, water is supplied using pipes to one or more central locations within the field. When water is allowed to flow under high pressure with the help of a pump, it gets sprinkled on the crops.

b)Drip system:

In this system, water is delivered at or near the roots of plants, drop by drop. This is the most efficient method of irrigation as there is no wastage of water at all. This method is important in areas where water availability is poor.

Page No 14:

Question 7:

If wheat is sown in the kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.

Answer:

If wheat is sown in the kharif season (from June to October), then the whole crop might get destroyed because of many factors such as lack of optimum temperature, adaptability, availability of pests, etc. Kharif season includes the rainy season, which is not favourable for the growth of wheat crop. Therefore, wheat crop should not be sown during this season.

Page No 14:

Question 8:

Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field.

Answer:

Continuous plantation of crops in a field makes the soil poor in certain nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc. Plants require nutrients for their proper growth and functioning. When a farmer continues to grow crops one after the other, then all nutrients available in the soil reduce and the crop yield decreases automatically.

Page No 14:

Question 9:

What are weeds? How can we control them?

Answer:

Undesirable plants that grow along with crop plants are known as weeds. Xanthium, Parthenium, etc. are some common weeds. Weeds compete with the crop for nutrients, light, and space. As a result, crop plants get lesser nutrients, light, and space for their development. This in turn, reduces their productivity. Thus, various weeding methods are employed.

Some important weeding methods are:

  1. Weeds can be controlled using weedicides. It is a chemical, which is sprayed in the fields to kill all available weeds. Weedicides are not harmful to crops.

  2. Tilling before sowing of crops also helps in removing weeds. Tilling uproots the weeds. The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds.

  3. The manual method of removing weeds is with the help of a khurpi. It involves regular uprooting or cutting of weeds close to the ground.

Page No 14:

Question 10:

Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.

Answer:

Flow chart of sugarcane crop production:



Page No 15:

Question 11:

Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below.

Down

1. Providing water to the crops.

2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.

5. Certain plants of the same kind grown on a large scale.

Across

3. A machine used for cutting the matured crop.

4. A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.

6. A process of separating the grain from chaff.

Answer:

Down

1. IRRIGATION

2. STORAGE

5. CROP

Across

3. HARVESTOR

4. GRAM

6. WINNOWING



View NCERT Solutions for all chapters of Class 8